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Delphix User Guide 5 | Oracle Database | Databases
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FlexPod Data Center with Oracle RAC on Oracle Linux Deployment Guide for Oracle Database12c RAC with Oracle Linux 6.
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The CVD program consists of systems and solutions designed, tested, and documented to facilitate faster, more reliable, and more predictable customer deployments.
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Cisco UCS is an ideal platform for the architecture of mission critical database workloads.
The combination of Cisco UCS platform, NetApp ® storage, and Oracle Real Application Cluster RAC architecture can accelerate your IT transformation by enabling faster deployments, greater flexibility of choice, efficiency, and lower risk.
This Cisco Validated Design CVD highlights a flexible, multitenant, highly performant and resilient FlexPod® reference architecture featuring the Oracle 12c RAC Database.
The FlexPod platform, developed by NetApp and Cisco, is a flexible, integrated infrastructure solution that delivers pre-validated storage, networking, and server technologies.
Think maximum uptime, minimal risk.
FlexPod components are integrated and standardized to help you achieve timely, repeatable, consistent deployments.
You can plan with accuracy the power, floor space, usable capacity, performance, and cost of each FlexPod deployment.
· Leverage a pre-validated platform to minimize business disruption and improve IT agility and reduce deployment time from months to weeks.
· Slash administration time and total cost of ownership TCO by 50 percent.
· Meet or exceed constantly expanding hardware performance demands for data center workloads.
Data powers essentially every operation in a modern enterprise, from keeping the supply chain operating efficiently to managing relationships with customers.
Database administrators and their IT departments face many challenges that demand needs for a simplified deployment and operation model providing high performance, availability and lower TCO.
The current industry trend in data center design is towards shared infrastructures featuring multitenant workload deployments.
By moving away from application silos and toward shared infrastructure that can be quickly deployed, customers increase agility and reduce costs.
Cisco® and NetApp® have partnered to deliver FlexPod, which uses best-in-class storage, server, and network components to serve as the foundation for a variety of workloads, enabling efficient architectural designs that can be quickly and confidently deployed.
This CVD describes how Cisco UCS can be used in conjunction with NetApp FAS join. casino act 2020 (sa) systems to implement an Oracle Real Application Clusters RAC 12c solution that is an Oracle Certified Configuration.
The intended audience for this document includes, but is not limited to, sales engineers, field consultants, professional services, IT managers, partner engineering, and customers who want to deploy Oracle RAC12c database on FlexPod architecture with NetApp clustered Data ONTAP® and the Cisco UCS platform.
Readers of this document need to have experience installing and configuring the solution components used to deploy the FlexPod Datacenter solution.
This FlexPod CVD demonstrates how enterprises can apply best practices to deploy Oracle RAC 12c Database using Cisco Unified Computing System, Cisco Nexus family switches, and NetApp FAS storage systems.
This validation effort exercised typical Online transaction processing OLTP and Decision-support systems DSS workloads to ensure expected stability, performance and resiliency design as demanded by mission critical rock casino tampa new years 2020 center deployments.
Cisco and NetApp have carefully validated and verified the FlexPod solution architecture and its many use cases while creating a portfolio of detailed documentation, information, and references to assist customers in transforming their data centers to this shared infrastructure model.
This portfolio includes, but is not limited to, the following items: · Best practice architectural design · Workload sizing and scaling guidance · Implementation and deployment instructions · Technical specifications rules for what is a FlexPod configuration · Frequently asked questions FAQs · Cisco Validated Designs CVDs and NetApp Validated Architectures NVAs covering a variety of use cases Cisco and NetApp have also built a robust and experienced support team focused on FlexPod solutions, from customer account and technical sales representatives to professional services and technical support engineers.
The support alliance between NetApp and Cisco gives customers and channel services partners direct access to technical experts who collaborate with cross vendors and have access to shared lab resources to resolve potential issues.
FlexPod supports tight integration with virtualized and cloud infrastructures, making it the logical choice for long-term investment.
FlexPod also provides a uniform approach to IT architecture, offering a well-characterized and documented shared pool of resources for application workloads.
FlexPod delivers operational efficiency and consistency with the versatility to meet a variety of SLAs and IT initiatives, including: · Application rollouts or application migrations · Business continuity and disaster recovery · Desktop virtualization · Cloud delivery models public, private, and hybrid and service models IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS · Asset consolidation and virtualization FlexPod is a best practice data center architecture that includes these three components: · Cisco Unified Computing System Cisco UCS · Cisco Nexus switches · NetApp fabric-attached storage FAS systems As shown in Figure 1, these components are source and configured according to best practices of both Cisco and NetApp and provide the ideal platform for running a variety of enterprise workloads with confidence.
FlexPod can scale up for greater performance and capacity adding compute, network, or storage resources individually as neededor it can scale out for environments that require multiple consistent deployments rolling out additional FlexPod stacks.
The reference architecture covered in this document leverages the Cisco Nexus 9000 for the switching element.
One of the key benefits of FlexPod is the ability to maintain consistency at scale.
Each of the component families shown in Cisco UCS, Cisco Nexus, and NetApp FAS offers platform and resource options to scale the infrastructure up or down, while supporting the same features and functionality that are required under the configuration and connectivity best practices of FlexPod.
The FlexPod Data Center with Oracle RAC on Oracle Linux solution provides an end-to-end architecture with Cisco UCS, Oracle, and NetApp technologies and demonstrates the FlexPod configuration benefits for running Oracle Database 12c RAC with Cisco VICs Virtual Interface Cards and Oracle Direct NFS Client.
The following infrastructure and software components are used for this solution: · Oracle Database 12c R1 RAC · Cisco UCS · Cisco Nexus 9000 switches · NetApp FAS 8080EX storage system and supporting components · NetApp OnCommand® System Manager · Swingbench, a benchmark kit for online transaction processing OLTP and decision support system DSS workloads The FlexPod for Oracle RAC solution addresses the following primary design principles: · Application availability.
Makes sure that application services are accessible, easy to configure, and ready to use once configured.
Addresses increasing demands with appropriate resources.
Provides new services or recovers resources without requiring infrastructure modification.
Facilitates efficient infrastructure operations through open standards and APIs.
Eliminates all single points of failure in the solution.
This section provides a technical overview of products used in this solution.
Figure 2 Cisco UCS Components Cisco UCS is a next-generation solution for blade and rack server computing.
The system integrates a low-latency, lossless 10 Gigabit Ethernet 10GbE unified network fabric with enterprise-class, x86-architecture servers.
The system is an integrated, scalable, multi-chassis platform in which all resources participate in a unified management domain.
Cisco UCS accelerates the delivery of new services simply, reliably, and securely through end-to-end provisioning and migration support for both virtualized and non-virtualized systems.
The Cisco UCS consists of the following main components: · Compute.
The system is based on an entirely new class of computing system that incorporates rack mount and blade servers based on Intel Xeon 2600 v2 Series Processors.
The system is integrated onto a low-latency, lossless, 10Gbps unified network fabric.
This network foundation consolidates LANs, SANs, and high-performance computing networks which are separate networks today.
The unified fabric lowers costs by reducing the number of network adapters, switches, and cables, and by decreasing the power and cooling requirements.
The system unleashes the full potential of virtualization by enhancing the scalability, performance, and operational control of virtual environments.
Cisco security, policy enforcement, and diagnostic features are now extended into virtualized environments to better support changing business and IT requirements.
The system provides consolidated access to both SAN storage and network-attached storage NAS over the unified fabric.
By unifying the storage access, Cisco UCS can access storage over Ethernet SMB 3.
This provides customers with storage choices and investment protection.
In addition, the server administrators can preassign storage-access policies to storage resources, for simplified storage connectivity and management leading to increased productivity.
The system uniquely integrates all system components to enable the entire solution to be managed as a single entity by the Cisco UCS Manager.
The Cisco UCS Manager has an intuitive graphical user interface GUIa command-line interface CLIand a powerful scripting library module for Microsoft PowerShell built on a robust application programming interface API to manage all system configuration and operations.
Cisco UCS B-Series Blade Servers increase performance, efficiency, versatility and productivity with these Intel-based blade servers.
For detailed information, refer to:.
Cisco UCS C-Series Rack-Mount Servers delivers unified computing in an industry-standard form factor to reduce total cost of ownership and increase agility.
For detailed information, refer to: Cisco UCS Adapters with wire-once architecture, offers a range of options to converge the fabric, optimize virtualization, and simplify management.
For detailed information, refer to: Cisco UCS Manager provides unified, embedded management of all software and hardware components in Cisco UCS.
Cisco UCS fuses access layer networking and servers.
This high-performance, next-generation server system provides a data center with a high degree of workload agility and scalability.
For detailed information, refer to:.
The fabric interconnects provide a single point for connectivity and management for the entire system.
The fabric interconnects feature virtual interfaces that terminate both physical and virtual connections equivalently, establishing a virtualization-aware environment in which blade, rack servers, and virtual machines are interconnected using the same mechanisms.
The Cisco UCS 6248UP is a 1-RU Fabric Interconnect that features up to 48 universal ports that can support 80GbE, FCoE, or native FC connectivity.
Cisco UCS 6200 Series Fabric Interconnects is a family of line-rate, low-latency, lossless, 10-Gbps Ethernet and Fibre Channel over Ethernet FCoE interconnect switches providing the management and communication backbone for Cisco UCS.
For detailed information, refer to:.
Figure 3 Cisco UCS 6248 Fabric Interconnect Figure 4 Cisco UCS 6000 Series Fabric Interconnects The Cisco UCS 5100 Series Blade Server Chassis is a crucial building block of the Cisco UCS, delivering a scalable and flexible blade server chassis.
The Cisco UCS 5108 Blade Server Chassis is six rack units 6RUs high and can mount in an industry-standard 19-inch rack.
A single chassis can house up to eight half-width Cisco UCS B-Series Blade Servers and can accommodate both half-width and full-width blade form factors.
Four single-phase, hot-swappable power supplies are accessible from the front of the chassis.
These power supplies are 92 percent efficient and can be configured to support non-redundant, N+ 1 redundant and grid-redundant configurations.
The chassis is capable of supporting future 80 Gigabit Ethernet standards.
Figure 5 Cisco UCS Blade Server Front View and Rear View Cisco UCS 5100 Series Blade Sever Chassis supports up to eight blade servers and up to two fabric extenders in a six-rack unit RU enclosure.
For detailed information, refer to:.
The Cisco UCS 2208XP Fabric Extender has eight 10GbE, FCoE-capable, and Enhanced Small Form-Factor Pluggable SFP+ ports that connect the blade chassis to the fabric interconnect.
Each Cisco UCS 2208XP has 32 x 10GbE ports connected through the midplane to each half-width slot in the chassis.
Based on Intel® Xeon® processor E7 and E5 product families, Cisco UCS B-Series Blade Servers work with virtualized and non-virtualized applications to increase: · Performance · Energy efficiency · Flexibility · Administrator productivity Figure 7 provides a complete summary of fourth generation Cisco UCS compute portfolio featuring Cisco UCS Blade and Rack-Mount Servers.
For this Oracle RAC solution, we used enterprise-class, Cisco UCS B460 Blade Servers.
The Cisco UCS B460 M4 Blade Server provides industry-leading performance and enterprise-critical stability for memory-intensive workloads such as: · Large-scale databases · In-memory analytics · Business intelligence Figure 8 Cisco UCS Blade Server The Cisco UCS B460 M4 Blade Server uses the power of the latest Intel ® Xeon ® processor E7 v3 product family to add new levels of performance and capabilities to the innovative Cisco UCS combines Cisco UCS B-Series Blade Servers and C-Series Rack Servers with networking and storage access resources into a single converged system that greatly simplifies server management and delivers greater cost efficiency and agility.
It also offers advances in fabric-centric computing, open APIs, and application-centric management, and uses service profiles to automate all aspects of server deployment and provisioning.
The Cisco UCS B460 M4 harnesses the power of four Intel ® Xeon ® processor E7 v3 product families and accelerates access to critical data.
This blade server supports up to 72 processor cores, 6.
In addition, the fabric-centric, architectural advantage of Cisco UCS means that you do not need to purchase, maintain, power, cool, and license excess switches and interface cards in each Cisco UCS blade chassis, enabling Cisco to design uncompromised expandability and versatility in its blade servers.
As a result, with their leading CPU core count, frequencies, memory slots, expandability, and drive capacities, the Cisco UCS B-Series Blade Servers offer uncompromised expandability, versatility, and performance.
The Cisco UCS B460 M4 provides: · Four Intel ® Xeon ® processor E7 v3 product families · 96 DDR3 memory DIMM slots · Four hot-pluggable drive bays for hard-disk drives HDDs or solid-state drive SSDs · SAS controller on board with RAID 0 and 1 support · Two modular LAN on motherboard mLOM slots for Cisco UCS Virtual Interface Card VIC · Six PCIe mezzanine slots, with two dedicated for optional Cisco UCS VIC 1340, and four slots for Cisco UCS VIC 1380, VIC port expander, or flash cards The Cisco UCS VIC 1340 is a 2-port 40Gbps Ethernet or dual 4 x 10Gbps Ethernet, FCoE-capable modular LAN on motherboard mLOM designed exclusively for the M4 generation of Cisco UCS B-Series Blade Servers.
When used in combination with an optional port expander, the Cisco UCS VIC 1340 capabilities is enabled for two ports tcp_slot_table_entries oracle 40Gbps Ethernet.
The Cisco UCS VIC 1340 enables a policy-based, stateless, agile server infrastructure that can present over 256 PCIe standards-compliant interfaces to the host that can be dynamically configured as either network interface cards NICs or host bus adapters HBAs.
In addition, the Cisco UCS VIC 1340 supports Cisco® Data Center Virtual Machine Fabric Extender VM-FEX technology, which extends the Cisco UCS fabric interconnect ports to virtual machines, simplifying server virtualization deployment and management.
Figure 9 Cisco Virtual Interface Card Cisco UCS is designed with a "wire once, walk away" model in which: · Cabling and network infrastructure support a unified network fabric in which features such as FCoE can be enabled through Cisco UCS Manager as needed.
· Every element in the hierarchy is programmable and managed by Cisco UCS Manager using a just-in-time resource provisioning model.
· The manager can configure identity information including the universally unique identifier UUID of servers, MAC addresses, and WWNs of network adapters.
· It can install consistent sets of firmware throughout the system hierarchy, including each blade's baseboard management controller BMCRAID controller, network adapter firmware, and fabric extender firmware.
· It can configure the operational characteristics of every component in the hierarchy, from the hardware RAID level of onboard disk drives to uplink port configurations on the Cisco UCS 6200 Series Fabric Interconnects and everything in between.
This approach allows a server resource to support a traditional OS and application software stack with a pair of Ethernet NICs and FC HBAs at one moment and then be rebooted to run a virtualized environment with a combination of up to 128 NICs and HBAs, with NICs connected directly to virtual machines through hypervisor pass-through technology.
Figure 10 Cisco Wire-Once Model Cisco UCS Manager provides unified, centralized, embedded management of all Cisco UCS software and hardware components across multiple chassis and thousands of virtual machines.
Administrators use the software to manage the entire Cisco UCS as a single logical entity through an intuitive GUI, a command-line interface CLIor an XML API.
The Cisco UCS Manager resides on a pair of Cisco UCS 6200 Series Fabric Interconnects using a clustered, active-standby configuration for high availability HA.
The software gives administrators a single interface for performing server provisioning, device discovery, inventory, configuration, diagnostics, monitoring, fault detection, auditing, and statistics collection.
Cisco UCS Manager Service profiles and templates support versatile role- and policy-based management, and system configuration information can be exported to configuration management databases CMDBs to facilitate processes based on IT Infrastructure Library ITIL concepts.
Service profiles benefit both virtualized and non-virtualized environments and increase the mobility of non-virtualized servers, such as when moving workloads from server to server or taking a server offline for service or upgrade.
Profiles can also be used in conjunction with virtualization clusters to bring new resources online easily, complementing existing virtual machine mobility.
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Some of these parameters are kept in the hardware of the server itself like BIOS firmware version, BIOS settings, boot order, FC boot settings, etc.
This results in the following server deployment challenges: · Tcp_slot_table_entries oracle deployment cycles — Every deployment requires coordination among server, storage, and network teams — Need to ensure correct firmware and settings for hardware components — Need appropriate LAN and SAN connectivity · Response time to business needs — Tedious deployment process — Manual, error prone processes, that are difficult to automate — High OPEX costs, outages caused by human errors · Limited OS and application mobility — Storage and network settings tied to physical ports and adapter identities — Static infrastructure leads to over-provisioning, higher OPEX costs Figure 11 Cisco UCS Service Profile Cisco UCS has uniquely addressed these challenges with the introduction of service profiles that enables integrated, policy based infrastructure management.
Cisco UCS Service Profiles hold the DNA for nearly all configurable parameters required to set up a physical server.
A set of user defined policies rules allow quick, consistent, repeatable, and secure deployments of Cisco UCS servers.
Figure 12 Service Profile Infrastructure Cisco Just click for source Service Profiles contain values for a server's property settings, including virtual network interface cards vNICsMAC addresses, boot policies, firmware policies, fabric connectivity, external management, and HA information.
By abstracting these settings from the physical server into a Cisco Service Profile, the Service Profile can then be deployed to any physical compute hardware within the Cisco UCS domain.
Furthermore, Service Profiles can, at any time, be migrated from one physical server to another.
This innovation is still unique in the industry despite competitors claiming to offer similar functionality.
In most cases, these vendors must rely on several different methods and interfaces to configure these server settings.
Furthermore, Cisco is the only hardware provider to offer a truly unified management platform, with Cisco UCS Service Profiles and hardware abstraction capabilities extending to both blade and rack servers.
Some of key features and benefits of Cisco UCS service profiles are detailed below: · Service profiles and templates.
Service profile templates are stored in the Cisco UCS 6200 Series Fabric Interconnects for reuse by server, network, and storage administrators.
Service profile templates consist of server requirements and the associated LAN and SAN connectivity.
Service profile templates allow different classes of resources to be defined and applied to a number of resources, each with its own unique identities assigned from predetermined pools.
The Cisco UCS Manager can deploy the service profile on any physical server at any time.
When a service profile is deployed to a server, the Cisco UCS Manager automatically configures the server, adapters, fabric extenders, and fabric interconnects to match the configuration specified in the service profile.
A service profile template parameterizes the UIDs that differentiate between server instances.
This automation of device configuration reduces the number of manual steps required to configure servers, Network Interface Cards NICsHost Bus Adapters HBAsand LAN and SAN switches.
· Programmatically deploying server resources.
Cisco UCS Manager provides centralized management capabilities, creates a unified management domain, and serves as the central nervous system of the Cisco UCS.
Cisco UCS Manager is embedded device management software that manages the system from end-to-end as a single logical entity through an intuitive GUI, CLI, or XML API.
Cisco UCS Manager implements role- and policy-based management using service profiles and templates.
This construct improves IT productivity and business agility.
A service profile can be applied to any blade server to provision it with the characteristics required to support a specific software stack.
A service profile allows server and network definitions to move within the management domain, enabling flexibility in the use of system resources.
Service profile templates allow different classes of resources to be defined and applied to a number of resources, each with its own unique identities assigned from predetermined pools.
The Cisco Nexus 9396X Switch delivers comprehensive line-rate layer 2 and layer 3 features in a two-rack unit 2RU form factor.
It is ideal for top-of-rack and middle-of-row deployments in both traditional and Cisco Application Centric Infrastructure ACI — enabled enterprise, service provider, and cloud environments.
Figure 13 Cisco Nexus 9396PX Switch The Cisco Nexus 9396PX switch features are capabilities are listed below.
Powered by NetApp clustered Data ONTAP, the FAS8000 series unifies the SAN and NAS storage infrastructure.
Systems architects can choose from a range of models representing a spectrum of cost-versus-performance points.
Every model, however, provides the following core benefits: · HA and fault tolerance.
Storage access and security are achieved venetian slot november 2020 clustering, HA pairing of controllers, hot-swappable components, NetApp RAID DP® disk protection allowing two independent disk failures without data lossnetwork interface redundancy, support for data mirroring with NetApp SnapMirror® software, application backup integration with the NetApp SnapManager® storage management software, and customizable data protection with the NetApp Snap Creator® framework and SnapProtect® products.
Users can store more data with less physical media.
· Unified storage architecture.
Every model runs the same software clustered Data ONTAP ; supports all popular storage protocols CIFS, NFS, iSCSI, FCP, and FCoE ; and uses SATA, SAS, or SSD storage or a mix on the back end.
This allows freedom of choice in upgrades and expansions, without the need for re-architecting the solution or retraining operations personnel.
Storage controllers are grouped into clusters for both availability and performance pooling.
Workloads can be moved between controllers, permitting dynamic load balancing and zero-downtime maintenance and upgrades.
Physical media and storage controllers can be added as needed to support growing demand without downtime.
A storage system running Data ONTAP also known as a storage controller is the hardware device that receives and sends data from the host.
Controller nodes are deployed in HA pairs, with these HA pairs participating in a single storage domain or cluster.
This unit detects and gathers information about its own hardware configuration, the storage system components, the operational status, hardware failures, and other error conditions.
A storage controller is redundantly connected to storage through disk shelves, which are the containers or device carriers that hold disks and associated hardware such as power supplies, connectivity interfaces, and cabling.
The FAS8000 series come with integrated unified target adapter UTA2 ports that support 16GB FC, 10GbE, or FCoE.
If storage requirements change over time, NetApp storage offers the flexibility to change quickly without expensive and disruptive forklift upgrades.
This applies to the following different types of changes: · Physical changes, such as expanding a controller to accept more disk shelves and subsequently more hard disk drives HDDs without an outage · Logical or configuration changes, such as expanding a RAID group to incorporate these new drives without requiring any outage · Access protocol changes, such as modification of a virtual representation of a hard drive to a host by changing a logical unit number LUN from FC access to iSCSI access, with no data movement required, but only a simple dismount of the FC LUN and a mount of the same LUN, using iSCSI In addition, a single copy of data can be shared between Linux and Windows systems while allowing each environment to access the data through native protocols and applications.
In a system that was originally purchased with all SATA disks for backup applications, high-performance solid-state disks can be added to the same storage system to support Tier-1 applications, such as Oracle®, Microsoft Exchange, or Microsoft SQL Server.
NetApp provides enterprise-ready, unified scale out storage with clustered Data ONTAP 8.
Developed from a solid foundation of proven Data ONTAP technology and innovation, clustered Data ONTAP is the basis for large virtualized shared-storage infrastructures that are architected for non-disruptive operations over the system lifetime.
Clustered Data ONTAP 8.
The previous version of Data ONTAP, 7-Mode, is not available as a mode of operation in version 8.
All storage controllers have physical limits to their expandability; the number of CPUs, memory slots, and space for disk shelves dictate maximum capacity and controller performance.
If more storage or performance capacity is needed, it might be possible to add CPUs and memory or install additional disk shelves, but ultimately the controller becomes completely populated, with no further expansion possible.
At this stage, the only option is to acquire another controller.
One way to do this is to scale up; that is, to add additional controllers in such a way that each is an independent management entity that does not provide any shared storage resources.
If the original controller is completely replaced by a newer, larger controller, data migration is required to transfer the data from the old controller to the new one.
This is time consuming and potentially disruptive and most likely requires configuration changes on all of the attached host systems.
https://pink-stuf.com/2020/biloxi-poker-tournament-2020.html the newer controller can coexist with the original controller, then the two storage controllers must be individually managed, and there are no native tools to balance or reassign workloads across them.
The situation becomes worse as the number of controllers increases.
If the scale-up approach is used, the operational burden increases consistently as the environment grows, and the end result is a very unbalanced and difficult-to-manage environment.
Technology refresh cycles require substantial planning in advance, lengthy outages, and configuration changes, which introduce risk into the system.
In contrast, when using a scale-out approach, additional controllers are added seamlessly to the resource pool residing on a shared storage infrastructure as the storage environment grows.
Host and client connections as well as volumes can move seamlessly and non-disruptively anywhere in the resource pool, so that existing workloads can be easily balanced over the available resources, and new workloads can be easily deployed.
Technology refreshes replacing disk shelves, adding or completely replacing storage controllers are accomplished while the environment remains online and continues serving data.
Although scale-out products have been available for some time, these were typically subject to one or more of the following shortcomings: · Limited protocol support—NAS only.
· Limited hardware support—supported only a particular type of storage controller or a very limited set.
· Little or no storage efficiency—thin provisioning, deduplication, or compression.
· Little or no data replication capability.
Therefore, while these products are well-positioned for certain specialized workloads, they are less flexible, less capable, and not robust enough for broad deployment throughout the enterprise.
Data centers require agility.
In a data center, each storage controller has CPU, memory, and disk shelf limits.
Scale-out means that as the storage environment grows, additional controllers can be added seamlessly to the resource pool residing on a shared storage infrastructure.
Host and client connections as well as volumes can be moved seamlessly and non-disruptively anywhere within the resource pool.
The benefits of scale-out include: · Non-disruptive operations · The ability to add tenants, instances, volumes, networks, and so on without downtime for Oracle databases · Operational simplicity and flexibility As Figure 15 illustrates, clustered Data ONTAP offers a way to solve the scalability requirements in a storage environment.
A clustered Data ONTAP system can scale up to 24 nodes, depending on platform and protocol, and can contain different disk types and controller models in the same storage cluster with up to 101PB of capacity.
The move to shared infrastructure has made it nearly impossible to schedule downtime for routine maintenance.
NetApp clustered Data ONTAP is designed to eliminate the need for planned downtime for maintenance operations and lifecycle operations as well as the unplanned downtime caused by hardware and software failures.
NetApp storage solutions provide redundancy and fault tolerance through clustered storage controllers and redundant, hot-swappable components, such as cooling fans, power supplies, disk drives, and shelves.
This highly available and flexible architecture enables customers to manage all data under one common infrastructure while meeting mission-critical uptime requirements.
· Logical interface LIF migration—allows you to virtualize the physical Ethernet interfaces in clustered Data ONTAP.
LIF migration allows the administrator to move these virtualized LIFs from one network port to another on the same or a different cluster node.
· Aggregate relocate ARL —allows you to transfer complete aggregates from one controller in an HA pair to the other without data movement.
Used individually and in combination, these tools allow you to non-disruptively perform a full range of operations, from moving a volume from a faster to a slower disk all the way up to a complete controller and storage technology refresh.
Shared storage infrastructure can provide services to many different databases and other enterprise applications.
In such environments, downtime produces disastrous effects.
The NetApp FAS eliminates sources click to see more downtime and protects critical data against disaster through two key features: · HA.
A NetApp HA pair provides seamless failover to its partner in the event of a hardware failure.
Each of the two identical storage controllers in the HA pair configuration serves data independently during normal operation.
During an individual storage controller failure, the data service process is transferred from the failed storage controller to the surviving partner.
RAID DP provides performance comparable to that of RAID 10 and yet it requires fewer disks to achieve equivalent protection.
RAID DP provides protection against double-disk failure, in contrast to RAID 5, which can protect against only one disk failure per RAID group, in effect providing RAID 10 performance and protection at a RAID 5 price point.
This section describes the storage efficiencies, advanced storage features, and multiprotocol support capabilities of the NetApp FAS8000 storage controller.
Storage Efficiencies NetApp FAS includes built-in thin provisioning, data deduplication, compression, and zero-cost cloning with FlexClone technology, offering multilevel storage efficiency across Oracle databases, installed applications, and user data.
This comprehensive storage efficiency enables a significant reduction in storage footprint, with a capacity reduction of up to 10:1, or 90% based on existing customer deployments and NetApp solutions lab validation.
Four features make this storage efficiency possible: · Thin provisioning—allows multiple applications to share a single pool of on-demand storage, eliminating the need to provision more storage for one application if another application still has plenty of allocated but unused storage.
· Deduplication—saves space on primary storage by removing redundant copies of blocks in a volume that hosts hundreds of instances.
This process is transparent to the application and the user, and it can be enabled and disabled on the fly or scheduled to run at off-peak hours.
· Compression—compresses data blocks.
Compression can be run whether or not deduplication is enabled and can provide additional space savings whether it is run alone or together with deduplication.
· FlexClone technology—offers hardware-assisted rapid creation of space-efficient, writable, point-in-time images of individual databases, LUNs, or flexible volumes.
The use of FlexClone technology in Oracle database deployments allows you to instantly create and replicate Oracle databases in minutes using less storage space than other vendors.
These virtual copies of production data allow developers to work on essential business operations such as patching, development, testing, reporting, training, and quality assurance without disrupting business continuity.
Leveraged with virtualization software, FlexClone technology enables DBAs to spin up customized isolated environments including OS platforms and databases for each development project, eliminating sharing of databases.
And, when time is critical, you can leverage NetApp FlexVol® to provision storage resources for additional application development projects or urgent testing of emergency patches.
Advanced Storage Features NetApp Data ONTAP provides the following additional features: · NetApp Snapshot technology—a manual or automatically scheduled point-in-time copy that writes only changed blocks, with no performance penalty.
A Snapshot copy consumes minimal storage space because only changes to the active file system are written.
Individual files and directories can be easily recovered from any Snapshot copy, and the entire volume can be restored back to any Snapshot state in seconds.
A Snapshot copy incurs no performance overhead.
Users can comfortably store up to 255 Snapshot copies per FlexVol volume, all of which are accessible as read-only and online versions of the data.
· LIF—a logical interface that is associated with a physical port, interface group, or VLAN interface.
More than one See more can be associated with a physical port at the same time.
There are three types of LIFs: NFS, iSCSI, and FC.
LIFs are logical network entities that have the same characteristics as physical network devices but are not tied to physical objects.
LIFs used for Ethernet traffic are assigned specific Ethernet-based details such as IP addresses and iSCSI qualified names and are associated with a specific physical port capable of supporting Ethernet.
LIFs used for FC-based traffic are assigned specific FC-based details such as worldwide port names WWPNs and are associated with a specific physical port capable of supporting FC or FCoE.
· Storage virtual machines SVMs; formerly known as Vserver —an SVM is a secure virtual storage server that contains data volumes and one or more LIFs through which it serves data to the clients.
An SVM securely isolates the shared, virtualized data storage and network and appears as a single dedicated server to its clients.
Each SVM has a separate administrator authentication domain and can be managed independently by an SVM administrator.
NetApp also offers the NetApp Unified Storage Architecture.
The term unified refers to a family of storage systems that simultaneously support SAN through FCoE, FC, and iSCSI and network-attached storage NAS through CIFS and NFS across many operating environments, including Oracle databases, VMware®, Windows, Linux, and UNIX.
This single architecture provides access to data by using industry-standard protocols, including NFS, CIFS, iSCSI, FCP, SCSI, and NDMP.
In addition, all systems can be configured with high-performance solid-state drives SSDs or serial-attached SCSI SAS disks for primary storage applications, low-cost SATA disks for secondary applications backup, archive, and so onor a mix of the different disk types.
By supporting all common NAS and SAN protocols on a single platform, NetApp FAS provides the following benefits: · Direct access to storage for each client · Network file sharing across different platforms without the need for protocol-emulation products such as SAMBA, NFS Maestro, or PC-NFS · Simple and fast data storage and data access for all client systems · Fewer storage systems · Greater efficiency from each system deployed Clustered Data ONTAP can support several protocols concurrently in the same storage system and data replication, and its storage efficiency features are supported across the following protocols: · NFS v3, v4, and v4.
A cluster serves data through at least one and possibly multiple SVMs.
An SVM is a logical abstraction that represents a set of physical resources of the cluster.
Data volumes and logical network LIFs are created and assigned to an SVM and can reside on any node in the cluster to which the SVM has been given access.
An SVM can own resources on multiple nodes concurrently, and those resources can be moved non-disruptively from one node to another.
For example, a flexible volume can be tcp_slot_table_entries oracle moved to a new node, and an aggregate, or a data LIF, can be transparently reassigned to a different physical network port.
The SVM abstracts the cluster hardware and is not tied to specific physical hardware.
An SVM is capable of supporting multiple data protocols concurrently.
For example, a 24-node cluster licensed for UNIX and Windows File Services that has a single SVM configured with thousands of volumes can be accessed from a single network interface on one of the nodes.
SVMs also support block-based article source, and LUNs can be created and exported by using iSCSI, FC, or FCoE.
Any or all of these data protocols can be configured for use within a given SVM.
An SVM is a secure entity; therefore, it is aware of only the resources that have been assigned to it and has no knowledge of other SVMs and their respective resources.
Each SVM operates as a separate and distinct entity with its own security domain.
Tenants can manage the resources allocated to them through a delegated SVM administration account.
An SVM is effectively isolated from other SVMs that share the same physical hardware.
Each SVM can connect to unique authentication zones, such as AD, LDAP, or NIS.
From a performance perspective, maximum IOPS and throughput levels can be set per SVM by using QoS policy groups, which allow the cluster administrator to quantify the performance capabilities allocated to each SVM.
Clustered Data ONTAP is highly scalable, and additional storage controllers and disks can easily be added to existing clusters to scale capacity and performance to meet rising demands.
Because these are virtual storage servers within the cluster, SVMs are also highly scalable.
As new nodes or aggregates are added to the cluster, the SVM can be non-disruptively configured to use them.
New disk, cache, and network resources can be made available to the SVM to create new data volumes or to migrate existing workloads to these new resources to balance performance.
This scalability also enables the SVM to be highly resilient.
SVMs are no longer tied to the lifecycle of a given storage controller.
As new replacement hardware is introduced, SVM resources can be moved non-disruptively from the old controllers to the new controllers, and the old controllers can be retired from service while the SVM is still online and available to serve data.
SVMs have three main components: · Logical interfaces.
All SVM networking is done through LIFs created within the SVM.
As logical constructs, LIFs are abstracted from the physical networking ports on which they reside.
A flexible volume is the basic unit of storage for an SVM.
An SVM has a root volume and can have one or more data volumes.
Data volumes can be created in any aggregate that has been delegated by the cluster administrator for use by the SVM.
Depending on the data protocols used by the SVM, volumes can contain either LUNs for use with block protocols, files for use with NAS protocols, or both concurrently.
For access using NAS protocols, the volume must be added to the SVM namespace through the creation of a client-visible directory called a junction.
Each SVM has a distinct namespace through which all of the NAS data shared from that SVM can be accessed.
This namespace can be thought of as a map to all of the junctioned volumes for the SVM, regardless of the node or the aggregate on which they physically reside.
Volumes can be junctioned at the root of the namespace or beneath other volumes that are part of the namespace hierarchy.
Oracle Database 12c addresses the key challenges of customers who are consolidating databases in a private cloud model by enabling greatly improved efficiency and lower management costs, while retaining the autonomy of separate databases.
Oracle Multitenant is a new feature of Oracle Database 12c, and allows each database plugged into the new multitenant architecture to look and feel like a standard Oracle Database to applications; so existing applications can run unchanged.
By supporting multi-tenancy in the database tier, rather than the application tier, Oracle Multitenant makes all ISV applications that run on the Oracle Database ready for SaaS.
Oracle Database 12 c multitenant architecture makes it easy to consolidate many databases quickly and manage them as a cloud service.
Oracle Database 12 c also includes in-memory data processing capabilities delivering breakthrough analytical performance.
Additional database innovations deliver new levels of efficiency, performance, security, and availability.
Oracle Database 12c introduces a rich set of new or enhanced features.
Oracle Real Application Clusters RAC harnesses the processing power of multiple, interconnected servers on a cluster; allows access to a single database from multiple servers on a cluster, insulating both applications and database users from server failures, while providing performance that scales out on-demand at low cost; and is a vital component of grid computing that allows multiple servers to access a single database at one time.
With Oracle Database 11g, you can configure Oracle Database to access NFS V3 NAS devices directly using Oracle Direct NFS Client, rather than using the operating system kernel NFS client.
Oracle Database will access files stored on the NFS server directly through the integrated Direct NFS Client eliminating the overhead imposed by the operating system kernel NFS.
These files are also accessible via the operating system kernel NFS client thereby allowing seamless administration.
Direct NFS Client overcomes many of the challenges associated with using NFS with the Oracle Database.
Direct NFS Client outperforms traditional NFS clients, is simple to configure, and provides a standard NFS client implementation across all hardware and operating system platforms.
This decreases memory consumption by eliminating scenarios where Oracle data is cached both in the SGA and in the operating system cache and eliminates the kernel mode CPU cost of copying data from the operating system cache into the SGA.
Direct NFS Client, therefore, leverages the tight integration with the Oracle Database software to provide unparalleled performance when compared to the operating system kernel NFS clients.
Not only does Direct Tcp_slot_table_entries oracle Client outperform traditional NFS, it does so while consuming fewer system resources.
The results of a detailed performance analysis are discussed later in this paper.
Oracle Direct NFS Client currently supports up to 4 parallel network paths to provide scalability and HA.
Direct NFS Client delivers optimized performance by automatically load balancing requests across all specified paths.
If one network path fails, then Direct NFS Client will reissue commands over any remaining paths — ensuring fault tolerance and HA.
This section describes the physical and logical high-level design considerations for the Oracle Database 12c RAC on FlexPod deployment.
The following tables list the inventory of the components used in the FlexPod solution stack.
Table 1 Server Configuration Cisco UCS Physical Server Configuration Description Quantity Cisco UCS 5108 Blade Server Chassis, with 4 power supply units, 8 fans, and 2 Fabric Extenders 2 Cisco UCS B460 Servers 4 8 GB Com code casino 2020 bonus DIMM, 1666 MHz 64 per server, 256 GB per Server 256 Cisco VIC 1340 2 per server 8 Hard-disk drives 2 per server 8 Cisco UCS-6248 48 port Fabric Interconnect 2 Table 2 LAN Configuration LAN Configuration Description Quantity Cisco Nexus 9396PX switches 2 VLANs: 4 · Public VLAN 135 · Private VLAN RAC Interconnect 10 · NFS Storage VLAN A side 20 · NFS Storage VLAN B side 30 Table 3 Storage Configuration Storage FAS 8080EX Controller 2 Nodes configured as Active-Active pair 2x Dual Port 10GbE PCIe adapters 2x1TB Flash Controllers: · 5 x DS4243 Disk Shelves 5 · 24 x 900 GB SAS Drives per shelf 96 · 15 x 400 GB SAS Flash Drives 15 Table 4 OS and Software Operating System and Software Oracle Linux Server 6.
In Figure 16, the green lines indicate the public network connecting to fabric interconnect A and the red lines indicate the private interconnects connecting to fabric interconnect B.
For Oracle RAC environments, it is a best practice to pin all private interconnect intra-blade traffic to one fabric interconnect.
The public and private VLANs spanning the fabric interconnects secure connectivity in the event of link failure.
Both green and red links also carry NFS storage traffic.
Figure 16 is a typical network configuration that can be deployed in a customer's environment.
The best practices and setup recommendations are described later in this document.
It is beyond the scope of this document to cover detailed information about Cisco UCS infrastructure setup and connectivity.
The documentation guides and examples are available at.
All the tasks to configure Cisco Unified Computing System are detailed in this document, however, only some of the screenshots are included.
The following sections detail the high-level steps involved for a Cisco UCS configuration.
The chassis discovery policy determines how the system reacts when you add a new chassis.
Cisco UCS Manager uses the settings in the chassis discovery policy to determine the minimum threshold for the number of links between the chassis and the fabric interconnect and whether to group links from the IOM to the fabric interconnect in a fabric port channel.
We recommend using the platform max value as shown.
Using platform max insures that Cisco UCS Manager uses the maximum number of IOM uplinks available.
Please set Link Grouping to Port Channel as shown below.
Figure 17 Discovery Policy Figure 18 lists some of differences between Discrete vs.
Port Channel Link grouping: Configuring Fabric Interconnects for Chassis and Blade Discovery Configure the Server Ports to initiate Chassis and Blade discovery.
To configure the server ports, complete the following steps: 1.
Select the ports that are connected to the chassis IOM.
Repeat these steps for Fabric Interconnect B.
Configure LAN Specific Tasks Configure and Enable Ethernet uplink Ports on Fabric Interconnect A and B.
We created four uplink ports on each Fabric Interconnect as shown below.
As an example we used port 17,18,19 and 20 from both Fabric Interconnect A and Fabric Interconnect B to configure as Ethernet uplink port.
Figure 19 Configuring Ethernet Uplink Port Create Port-Channel on both Fabric Interconnect A and Fabric Interconnect B using ethernet uplink port 17,18,19 and 20.
Figure 20 Port Channels for Fabric A Figure 21 Port Channels for Fabric B Configure and Create VLANs for Public, Private and Storage Traffic We created four VLANs as public VLAN ID 135private VLAN ID 10storageA VLAN ID 20 and storage VLAN ID 30 shown below.
However, due to the nature of some of the resiliency tests, we decided to use local disk boot policy for this solution.
Alternatively, you can pre-create source templates for private, public and storage vNICs.
Figure 30 vNIC Public in Service Profile Template Figure 31 vNIC Private in Service Profile Template Figure 32 vNIC Storage A in Service Profile Template Figure 33 vNIC Storage B in Service Profile Template Figure 34 Storage in Service Profile Template Figure 35 vNICs Placement Figure 36 Boot Order in Service Profile Template Figure 37 Service Profile Template Create Service Profiles from Template and Associate to Servers Figure 38 Service Profile Creation from Service Profile Template When the service profiles are created, associate them to servers.
Figure 39 shows 4 servers associated with appropriate service profiles.
This completes the Cisco UCS configuration steps.
The following are the steps for Nexus 9396PX switch configuration.
To provide Layer 2 and Layer 3 switching, a pair of Cisco Nexus 9396PX Switches with upstream switching are deployed, providing HA in the event of failure to Cisco UCS to handle management, application, and Network storage data traffic.
In the Cisco Nexus 9396PX switch topology, a single vPC feature is enabled to provide HA, faster convergence in the event of a failure, and greater throughput.
Table 6 vPC Summary vPC Domain vPC Name vPC ID 1 Peer-Link 1 1 vPC Public 17 1 vPC Private 19 1 vPC Storage A 20 1 vPC Storage B 30 As listed in the table above, a single vPC domain with Domain ID 1 is created across two Cisco Nexus 9396PX member switches to define vPC members to carry specific VLAN network traffic.
In this topology, we defined a total of 5 vPCs.
Please follow these steps to create this configuration.
Create vPC Peer-Link Between Two Cisco Nexus Switches To create a vPC Peer-Link between two Cisco Nexus Switches, complete the following steps: Figure 40 Cisco Nexus Switch Peer-Link 1.
For vPC 1 as Peer-link, we used interfaces 1-4 for Peer-Link.
You may choose the appropriate number of ports for your needs.
Create vPC Configuration Between Cisco Nexus 9396PX and The best casino Interconnects Create and configure vPC 17 and 19 for Data network between Nexus 9396PX switches and Fabric Interconnects.
Figure 41 Configuration between Nexus Switch and Fabric Interconnects Table 7 summarizes vPC IDs, allowed VLAN IDs and Ethernet uplink ports.
Create vPC Configuration Between Cisco Nexus 9396PX and NetApp NFS Storage Create and configure vPC 20 and 30 for data network between Cisco Nexus 9396PX switches and NetApp storage.
Figure 42 Configuration between Cisco Nexus Switch and NetApp Storage Table 8 summarizes vPC IDs, allowed VLAN IDs and NetApp storage ports.
This is essential for both Oracle NFS storage and Oracle Private Interconnect traffic.
Please note that Oracle private interconnect traffic does not leave the Cisco UCS domain Fabric Interconnect in normal operating conditions.
However, if there is IOM failure or Fabric Interconnect reboot, the private interconnect traffic will need to be routed to the immediate northbound switch Cisco Nexus 9396PX in our case.
Since we are using Jumbo Frames as a best practice for Oracle private interconnect, we need to have jumbo frames configured on the Cisco Nexus 9396PX switches.
Verify All vPC Status is up on Both Cisco Nexus 9396PX Switches Figure 43 Cisco Nexus Switch A Status Figure 44 Cisco Nexus Switch B Status Figure 45 vPC Description for Switch A Figure 46 vPC Description for Switch B This completes the Cisco Nexus 9396PX switch configuration.
The next step is to configure the NetApp storage.
Storage connectivity and infrastructure configuration is not covered in this document.
For more information, refer to the following Cisco site: This section describes the storage layout and design considerations for the database deployment.
Figure 47 through Figure 50 illustrate the SVM formerly known as Vserver and LIF setup configurations.
The a0a VIF uses 10GbE ports e0e and e0g, with an MTU setting of 9,000.
Each of the VLANs also has a LIF created; these LIFs are as the mount points for NFS.
Figure 49 and Figure 50 illustrate the storage layout for aggregates, disks, and FlexVol volumes for the databases.
In summary, each database has a total of four volumes that are distributed evenly across each node.
The next section covers OS and database deployment configurations.
For this solution, we configured a 4-node Oracle Database 12c RAC cluster using Cisco B460 M4 servers.
We installed Oracle Linux 6.
Table 9 summarizes host configuration details.
Less disk space can be configured as per requirements Step-by-step OS installation details are not covered in this document, but the following are key steps for OS install: · Download Oracle Linux 6.
· Launch KVM console on desired server, enable virtual media, map https://pink-stuf.com/2020/poker-world-rankings-2020.html Linux ISO image and reset the server.
It should launch the Oracle Linux installer.
· Select language, fresh installation.
You can configure additional interfaces as part of post install steps.
Please verify the Device MAC Address and desired MTU settings as you configure the interfaces.
· After OS install, reboot the server, complete appropriate registration steps.
You can choose to synchronize the time with ntp server.
Alternatively, you can choose to use Oracle RAC cluster synchronization daemon OCSSD.
Both ntp and OCSSD are mutually exclusive and OCSSD will be setup during GRID install if ntp is not configured.
Not all of the steps detailed below may be required for your setup.
Validate and change as needed.
The following changes were made on the test bed where Oracle RAC install was done.
Disable selinux It is recommended to disable selinux.
The oracle-rdbms-server-12cR1-preinstall RPM packages are accessible through the Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network ULN, which requires a support contractfrom the Oracle Linux distribution media, or from the Oracle public yum repository.
This RPM performs a number of pre-configuration steps, including the following: · Automatically downloading and installing any additional software packages and specific package versions needed for installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle Database 12 c Release 1 12.
· Creating the user oracle and the groups oinstall for OraInventory and dba for OSDBAwhich are used during database installation.
For security purposes, this user has no password by default and cannot log in remotely.
To enable remote login, please set a password using the passwd tool.
Any pre-customized settings not related to database installation are left as is.
Please refer to Oracle support note 1519875.
Please note that these setting may change as new architectures evolve.
Refer to Appendix B for complete sysctl.
On the right menu, select your class of servers, for example Cisco UCS B-Series Blade server software, and then select Unified Computing System UCS Drivers on the following page.
Select appropriate ISO image for UCS-related drivers based on your firmware.
Extract and install the appropriate eNIC and fnic if SAN setup RPM.
Prior to GRID and database install, verify all the prerequisites are completed.
This document does not cover the step-by-step installation for Oracle GRID but will provide partial summary of details that might be relevant.
Oracle Grid Infrastructure ships with the Cluster Verification Utility CVU that can be run to validate pre and post installation configurations.
Prior to GRID install, complete the steps detailed below.
Configure Private and Storage NICs Skip this step if you have configured NICs during OS install.
Please note that these mount point directories need to be created first.
The Oracle Direct NFS dNFS configuration is completed at a later stage.
For Oracle Databases, using HugePages reduces the operating system maintenance of page states, and increases Translation Lookaside Buffer TLB hit ratio.
· HugePage uses fewer pages to cover the physical address space, so the size of "book keeping" mapping from the virtual to the physical address decreases, so it requiring continue reading entries in the TLB and so TLB hit ratio improves.
· HugePages reduces page table overhead.
· Eliminated page table lookup overhead: Since the pages are not subject to replacement, page table lookups are not required.
· Faster overall memory performance: On virtual memory systems each memory operation is actually two abstract memory operations.
Since there are fewer pages to work on, the possible bottleneck on page table access is clearly avoided.
For our configuration, we used HugePages for all OLTP and DSS workloads.
Please refer to Oracle support formerly metalink document 361323.
Install and Configure Oracle GRID It is not within the scope of this document to include the specifics of an Oracle RAC installation.
Please refer to the Oracle installation documentation for specific installation instructions for your environment.
· Select and verify Public and Private Network Interface details.
This should complete GRID install.
When the GRID install is successful, login to each of the nodes and perform minimum health checks to make sure that Cluster state is healthy.
Install Database Software After successful GRID install, we recommend to install Oracle Database 12c software only.
You can create databases using DBCA or database creation scripts at later stage.
At this point, we are ready to run synthetic IO tests against this infrastructure setup.
We used fio and Oracle orion as primary tools for IO tests.
Please note that we will configure Direct NFS as we get into the actual database testing with Swingbench later.
Before configuring any database for workload tests, it is extremely important to validate that this is indeed a balanced configuration that is capable of delivering expected performance.
We use widely adopted synthetic IO generation tools such as Orion and Linux FIO for this exercise.
During our testing, we validated that both Orion and FIO generate similar performance results.
The results showcase linear scalability as we distribute IO generation from Node 1 to Node 4.
The latency is also almost constant and does not increase significantly as load increases from Node 1 to Node 4.
We also ran the tests for 3 hours to help ensure that this configuration is capable of sustaining this load for longer period of time.
Bandwidth Tests Figure 52 Bandwidth Tests The bandwidth tests are carried out with 1MB IO size and represent DSS database workload.
As shown above, the bandwidth scaled linearly as we scaled nodes from 1 to 4.
With four nodes, we could generate about 4.
We did not see any performance dips or degradation over the period of run time.
It is also important to note that this is not a benchmarking exercise and the numbers presented are not the peak numbers where there is hardware resource saturation.
These are practical and out of box test numbers that can be easily reproduced by any one.
At this time, we are ready to create OLTP database s and continue with database tests.
We used Oracle Database Configuration Assistant DBCA to create two OLTP and one DSS databases.
Alternatively, you can use Database creation scripts to create the databases as well.
Please ensure to place the datafiles, redo logs and control files in appropriate directory paths discussed in the storage layout section.
We will discuss OLTP and DSS schema creation along with data population in the workload section.
We recommend to configure Oracle Database to access NFS V3 servers directly using an Oracle internal Direct NFS client instead of using the operating system kernel NFS client.
To enable Oracle Database to use Direct NFS, the NFS file systems must be mounted and available over regular NFS mounts before you start installation.
Direct NFS manages settings after installation.
You should still set the kernel mount options as a backup, but for normal operation, Direct NFS will manage NFS mounts.
Some NFS file servers require NFS clients to connect using reserved ports.
If your storage system is running with reserved port checking, then you must disable it for Direct NFS to operate.
To disable reserved port checking, consult your NetApp documentation.
To enable Direct NFS dNFS for Oracle RAC, the oranfstab must be configured on all nodes and it must be synchronized on all nodes.
Please shutdown all the databases before this step.
This completes dNFS setup.
You can start the database s next and validate the dNFS client usage via following views.
We used Swingbench for workload testing.
Swingbench is a simple to use, free, Java based tool to generate database workload and perform stress testing using different benchmarks in Oracle database environments.
Swingbench provides four separate benchmarks, namely, Order Entry, Sales History, Calling Circle, and Stress Test.
For the tests described in this paper, Swingbench Order Entry benchmark was used for OLTP workload testing and the Sales History benchmark was used for the DSS workload testing.
The Order Entry benchmark is based on SOE schema and is TPC-C like by types of transactions.
The Sales History benchmark is based on the SH schema and is TPC-H like.
The workload is query read centric and is designed to test the performance of queries against large tables.
For this solution, we created two OLTP Order Entry and one DSS Sales History database to demonstrate database consolidation, multi-tenancy capability, performance and sustainability.
The OLTP databases are approximately 6 TB and 3 TB in size while DSS database is approximately 4 TB in size.
Typically encountered in the real world deployments, we something the best roulette strategy 2020 apologise a combination of scalability and stress related scenarios that ran concurrently on a 4-node Oracle RAC cluster configuration.
· OLTP user scalability and OLTP cluster scalability representing small and random transactions · DSS workload representing larger transactions · Mixed workload featuring OLTP and DSS workloads running simultaneously for 24 hours OLTP Performance The first step after the databases creation is calibration; about the number of concurrent users, OS and database optimization.
For OLTP workload featuring Order Entry schema, we used two databases.
For the larger database 6TB OLTP1, we used 64GB SGA and smaller database 3TB OLTP2, we used 48GB SGA.
For OLTP1, we selected 1,000 concurrent users and OLTP2, we used 400 concurrent users.
We also ensured that HugePages were in use.
Each OLTP scalability test was run for at least 12 hours and ensured that results are consistent for the duration of the full run.
For OLTP workloads, the common measurement metrics are Transactions Per Minute TPMand Users and IOPs scalability.
Here are the results from scalability testing for Order Entry workload.
Figure 53 OLTP Database Scalability We ran tests with 100, 250, 500 and 1,000 users across 4-node cluster.
We also scaled users further by 400 total 1,400 by running a second OLTP database in the same cluster.
During the tests, we validated that Oracle SCAN listener fairly and evenly load balanced users across all four nodes of the cluster.
We also observed appropriate scalability in TPMs as number or users across clusters increased.
This section highlights that IO load is distributed across all the cluster nodes performing workload operations.
Due to variations in workload randomness, we conducted multiple runs to ensure consistency in behavior and test results.
DSS Performance DSS workloads are generally sequential in nature, read intensive and exercise large IO size.
DSS workload runs a small number of users that typically exercise extremely complex queries that run for hours.
For this test, we ran Swingbench Sales history workload with 60 users.
The charts below show DSS workload results.
Figure 56 Bandwidth for DSS Performance For 24 hours DSS workload test, we observed total sustained IO bandwidth was up to 2.
As indicated on the charts, the IO was also evenly distributed across both NetApp FAS storage controllers and we did not observe any significant dips in performance and IO bandwidth for a sustained period of time.
Mixed Workload The next test is to run both OLTP and DSS workloads simultaneously.
This test will ensure that configuration in this test is able to sustain small random queries presented via OLTP along with large and sequential transactions submitted via DSS workload.
We ran the test for 24 hours.
The results are as shown in the chart below.
The OLTP transactions also averaged between 300K and 340K transactions per minute.
OLTP1 Database Performance OLTP1 Database activity is captured for all four Oracle RAC Instances using Oracle Enterprise Manager for 24 hours mixed workload test.
Figure 58 OLTP1 Database Performance Summary RAC Global Cache Blocks Received and Global Cache Blocks Get Time is captured for OLTP1 database for 24 hours mixed workload test.
Figure 61 OLTP2 Database Performance Summary RAC Global Cache Blocks Received and Global Cache Blocks Get Time is captured for OLTP2 database for 24 hours mixed workload test.
Figure 64 DSS Performance Additional Observation: · We analyzed storage reports and found that both SSD and HDD were reasonably utilized around 50% and workload was not primarily coming out of SSD.
For SSDs, we observed latencies around 0.
· The servers CPU utilization averaged around 35% for the 24 hour run and we did not observe any queueing or bandwidth saturation for the Network interfaces also.
The goal of these tests is to ensure that reference architecture withstands commonly occurring failures either due to unexpected crashes, hardware failures or human errors.
We conduct many hardware, software process kills and OS specific failures that simulate real world scenarios under stress condition.
Table 10 highlights some of the test cases.
Scenario Test Status Test 1 — UCS 6248 Fabric-B Failure Test Run the system on Full Load.
Reboot Fabric-B, let it join the cluster back and check network traffic on Fabric-A.
Fabric Failover did not cause any disruption to Private Interconnect network traffic and StorageB network traffic Test 2 — UCS 6248 Fabric-A Failure Test Run the system on Full Load.
Reboot Fabric-A, let it join the cluster back and check network traffic on Fabric-B.
Fabric Failover did not cause any disruption to Public network traffic and StorageA network traffic Test 3 — Nexus 9396PX Switch Failure Test Run the system on Full Load.
Reboot Nexus A, let it join the cluster back and check network traffic on Nexus B.
Reboot Nexus B, let it join the cluster back and check network traffic on Nexus A.
Nexus Switch Failover did not cause any disruption to Public network traffic, Private Interconnect network traffic and Storage network traffic Figure 65 illustrates the FlexPod solution infrastructure diagram under normal conditions.
The green lines indicate the public network connecting to Fabric interconnect A and the red lines indicate the private interconnects connecting to Fabric interconnect B.
The public and private VLANs spanning the fabric interconnects secure the connectivity in case of link failure.
Both green and red links also carry NFS storage traffic.
Table 11 shows a complete infrastructure detail of MAC address, OS address, VLAN information and Server connections for Cisco UCS Fabric Interconnect FI-A and Fabric Interconnect FI-B switches before failover test.
The table below shows all the MAC address and VLAN information on Cisco UCS Fabric Interconnect A.
In the table, all the switches over VLAN from Fabric Interconnect B to Fabric Interconnect A are shown in green color.
The table below shows details of MAC address, VLAN information and Server connections for Cisco UCS Fabric Interconnect — A Switch.
The table below shows all the MAC address and VLAN information on Cisco UCS Fabric Interconnect B.
In the table, all the switches over VLAN from Fabric Interconnect A to Fabric Interconnect B are shown in green color.
The table below shows details of MAC address, VLAN information and Server connections for Cisco UCS Fabric Interconnect FI-A Switch.
During Nexus Switch B failure, the respective blades ORARAC1 and ORARAC2 on chassis 1 and ORARAC3 and ORARAC4 on chassis 2 will failover the MAC addresses and its VLAN to Nexus Switch A same way as Opinion inetbet casino 2020 thought Switch tcp_slot_table_entries oracle />Similarly, during Nexus Switch A failure, the respective blades ORARAC1 and ORARAC2 on chassis 1 and ORARAC3 and ORARAC4 on chassis 2 will failover the MAC addresses and its VLAN to Nexus Switch B same way as Fabric Switch failure.
Cisco and NetApp have partnered to deliver the FlexPod solution, which uses best-in-class storage, server, and network components to serve as the foundation for a variety of workloads, enabling efficient architectural designs that can be quickly and confidently deployed.
FlexPod Datacenter is predesigned to provide agility to the large enterprise data centers with high availability and storage scalability.
With a FlexPod-based solution, customers can leverage a secure, integrated, and optimized stack that includes compute, network, and storage resources that are sized, configured, and deployed as a fully tested unit running industry standard applications such as Oracle Database 12c RAC tcp_slot_table_entries oracle D-NFS Direct NFS.
The following factors make the combination of Cisco UCS with NetApp storage so powerful for Oracle environments: · Cisco UCS stateless computing architecture provided by the Service Profile capability of Cisco UCS allows for fast, non-disruptive workload changes to be executed simply and seamlessly across the integrated UCS infrastructure and Cisco x86 servers.
· Hardware level redundancy for all major components using Cisco UCS and NetApp availability features.
FlexPod is a flexible infrastructure platform composed of pre-sized storage, networking, and server components.
It's designed to ease your IT transformation and operational challenges with maximum efficiency and minimal risk.
FlexPod differs from other solutions by providing: · Integrated, validated technologies from industry leaders and top-tier software partners.
· A single platform built from unified compute, fabric, and storage technologies, allowing you to scale to large-scale data centers without architectural changes.
· Centralized, simplified management of infrastructure resources, including end-to-end automation.
· A flexible Cooperative Support Model that resolves issues rapidly and spans across new and legacy products.
Only relevant fragments are shown.
Time: Thu Sep 3 23:38:45 2015 version 7.
See sysctl 8 and sysctl.
Controls IP packet forwarding net.
Useful for debugging multi-threaded applications.
Tushar Patel is a Principle Engineer for the Cisco Systems Data Center group.
Tushar has nearly eighteen years of experience in database architecture, design and performance.
Tushar also has strong background in Intel x86 architecture, converged systems, storage technologies and virtualization.
He has helped a large number of enterprise customers evaluate and deploy mission-critical database solutions.
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Niranjan Mohapatra, Technical Marketing Engineer, Data Center Group, Cisco Systems, Inc.
Niranjan Mohapatra is a Technical Marketing Engineer for Cisco Systems Data Center group and specialist on Oracle RAC RDBMS.
He has over 16 years of extensive experience with Oracle RDBMS and associated tools.
Niranjan has worked as a TME and a DBA handling production systems in various organizations.
He holds a Master of Science MSc degree in Computer Science and is also an Oracle Certified Professional OCP and Storage Certified Professional.
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John has 14 years of experience in storage performance, storage architecture, storage protocols, and database administration and performance.
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Linux Kernel Boot Parameters Derived from kernel-parameters.
Some firmware have broken 64 bit addresses for force ACPI ignore these and use the older legacy 32 bit addresses.
This option is useful for developers to identify the root cause of an AML interpreter issue when the issue has something to do with the repair mechanism.
Enable processor driver info messages: acpi.
IO ports and memory declared in ACPI might be used by the ACPI subsystem in arbitrary AML code and can interfere with legacy drivers.
By default, this is disabled due to x86 early mapping size limitation.
This facility can be used to prevent such uncontrolled GPE floodings.
Format: Support masking of GPEs numbered from 0x00 to 0x7f.
This feature is enabled by default.
This option allows to turn off the feature.
Useful for kdump kernels.
This option turns off this feature.
Note that such command can only affect the default state of the OS vendor strings, thus it cannot affect the default state of the feature group strings and the current state of the OS vendor strings, specifying it multiple times through kernel command line is meaningless.
This command is useful when one do not care about the state of the feature group strings which should be controlled by the OSPM.
NOTE that such command can only affect the OSI support state, thus specifying it multiple times through kernel command line is also meaningless.
Note that such command can affect the current state of both the OS vendor strings and the feature group strings, thus specifying it multiple times through kernel command line is meaningful.
But it may still not able to affect the final state of a string if there are quirks related to this string.
This command is useful when one want to control the state of the feature group strings to debug BIOS issues related to the OSPM features.
For broken nForce2 BIOS resulting in XT-PIC timer.
Bit 0 enables warnings, bit 1 enables fixups, and bit 2 sends a segfault.
This option gives you up to 3% performance improvement on AMD F15h machines where it is enabled by default for a CPU-intensive style benchmark, and it can vary highly in a microbenchmark depending on workload and compiler.
The IOMMU driver is not allowed anymore to lift isolation requirements as needed.
With this option enabled, AMD IOMMU driver will print ACPI tables for AMD IOMMU during IOMMU initialization.
This mode requires kvm-amd.
Default when IOMMU HW support is present.
Format: noidle Disable APC CPU standby support.
SPARCstation-Fox does not play well with APC CPU idle - disable it if you have APC and your system crashes randomly.
The parameter defines the maximal number of local apics being dumped.
Also it is possible to set it to "all" by meaning -- no limit here.
Format: { 1 default 2.
The default behavior is to disable the BAU i.
Format: { "0" "1" } 0 - Disable the BAU.
Values larger than 10 seconds 10000 are changed to no delay 0.
Sometimes CPU hardware bugs make them report the cache size incorrectly.
The kernel will attempt work arounds to fix known problems, but for some CPUs it is not possible to determine what the correct size should be.
This option provides an override for these situations.
Accepted values range from 0 to 7 inclusive.
Format: nosocket -- Disable socket memory accounting.
Default value is set via a kernel config option.
Note that this does not force such clocks to be always-on nor does it reserve those clocks in any way.
This parameter is useful for debug and development, but should not be needed on a platform with proper driver support.
If specified clocksource is not available, it defaults to PIT.
Note the Linux specific bits are not necessarily stable over kernel options, but the vendor specific ones should be.
Also note that user programs calling CPUID directly or using the feature without checking anything will still see it.
Also note the kernel might malfunction if you disable some critical bits.
A value of 0 disables CMA altogether.
This is used in CMO environments to determine OS memory pressure for page stealing by a hypervisor.
The options are of the form "bbbbpnf", where "bbbb" is the baud rate, "p" is parity "n", "o", or "e""n" is number of bits, and "f" is flow control "r" for RTS or omit it.
MMIO inter-register address stride is either 8-bit mmio16-bit mmio16or 32-bit mmio32.
This is for both Xen and PowerPC hypervisors.
A value of 0 disables the blank timer.
This delay occurs on every CPU online, such as boot, and resume from suspend.
If ' offset' is omitted, then a suitable offset is selected automatically.
Allow kernel to allocate physical memory region from top, so could be above 4G if system have more than 4G ram installed.
Otherwise memory region will be allocated below 4G, if available.
Kernel would try to allocate at at least 256M below 4G automatically.
This one let user to specify own low range under 4G for second kernel instead.
We default to 0 no extra messagessetting it to 1 will print a lot more information - normally only useful to kernel developers.
Bigger value increase the probability of catching random memory corruption, but reduce the amount of memory for normal system use.
Setting this parameter to 1 or 2 should be enough to identify most random memory corruption problems caused by bugs in kernel or driver code when a CPU writes to or reads from a random memory location.
In default, it is disabled.
Defaults tcp_slot_table_entries oracle the default architecture's huge page size if not specified.
This causes the kernel to fall back to 256MB segments which can be useful when debugging issues that require an SLB miss to occur.
Use this if to workaround buggy firmware.
This parameter disables that.
This parameter disables that behavior, possibly causing your machine to run very slowly.
One entry is required per DMA-API allocation.
Use this if the DMA-API debugging code disables itself because the architectural default is too low.
Just pass the driver to filter for as the parameter.
The filter can be disabled or changed to another driver later using sysfs.
An EDID data set will only be used for a particular connector, if its name and a colon are prepended to the EDID name.
Each connector may use a unique EDID data set by separating the files with a comma.
An EDID data set with no connector name will be used for any connectors not explicitly specified.
Useful for driver authors to determine what data is available or for reverse-engineering.
This is useful for tracking down temporary early mappings which are not unmapped.
When used with no options, the early console is determined by the stdout-path property in device tree's chosen node.
Only supported option is baud rate.
If baud rate is not specified, the serial port must already be setup and configured.
MMIO inter-register address stride is either 8-bit mmio or 32-bit mmio32 or mmio32be.
The pl011 serial port must already be setup and configured.
Options are not yet supported.
The serial port must already be setup and configured.
Options are not yet supported.
The serial port must already be setup and configured.
Options are not yet supported.
The serial port must already be setup and configured.
Options are not yet supported.
The serial port must already be setup and configured.
Options are not yet supported.
The serial port must already be setup and configured.
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A valid base address must be provided, and the serial port must already be setup and configured.
The serial port must already be setup and configured.
Options are not yet supported.
It is not enabled by default because it has some cosmetic problems.
Append ",keep" to not disable it when the real console takes over.
Only one of vga, efi, serial, or usb debug port can be used at a time.
Currently only ttyS0 and ttyS1 may be specified by name.
Interaction with the standard serial driver is not very good.
The VGA and EFI output is eventually overwritten by the real console.
The xen output can only be used by Xen PV guests.
The sclp output can only be used on s390.
May be overridden by other higher priority error reporting module.
Use this parameter only if you are really sure that your UEFI does sane gc and fulfills the spec otherwise your board may brick.
Region of memory which aa attribute is added to is from ss to ss+nn.
Using this parameter bonus codes 2020 no casino deposit bob can do debugging of EFI memmap related feature.
For example, you can do debugging of Address Range Mirroring feature even if your box doesn't support it.
If there are multiple variables with the same name but with different vendor GUIDs, all of them will be loaded.
Generally kexec loader will pass this option to capture kernel.
This parameter enables that.
The kernel tries to set a reasonable default.
Default value is 0.
See its documentation for details.
Many Pentium M systems disable PAE but may have a functionally usable PAE implementation.
Warning: use of this parameter will taint the kernel and may cause unknown problems.
This is the max depth it will trace into a function.
When zero, profiling data is discarded and associated debugfs files are removed at module unload time.
Determines the "Enable 0" bit of the configuration register.
Format: 0 1 Default: 0 grcan.
Determines the "Enable 0" bit of the configuration register.
Format: 0 1 Default: 0 grcan.
Format: 0 1 Default: 0 grcan.
Defaults on for 64-bit NUMA, off otherwise.
This works even on boxes that have no highmem otherwise.
This also works to reduce highmem size on bigger boxes.
Valid pages sizes on x86-64 are 2M when the CPU supports "pse" and 1G when the CPU supports the "pdpe1gb" cpuinfo flag.
This is only useful for debugging when something happens in the window between unregistering the boot console and initializing the real console.
Normally a brightness value of 0 indicates backlight switched off, and the maximum of the brightness value sets the backlight to maximum brightness.
If this parameter is set to 0 default and the machine requires it, or this parameter is set to 1, a brightness value of 0 sets the backlight to maximum brightness, and the maximum of the brightness value switches the backlight off.
Depending on platform up to 6 ports are supported, enabled by setting corresponding tcp_slot_table_entries oracle in the mask to 1.
The default value is 0x0, which has a special meaning.
On systems that have Tcp_slot_table_entries oracle, it triggers scanning the PCI bus for the first and the second port, which are then probed.
On systems without PCI the value of 0x0 enables probing the two first ports as if it was 0x3.
Hardware implementations are permitted to support either or both of the legacy and the 2008 NaN encoding mode.
Available settings are as link strict accept binaries that request a NaN encoding supported by the FPU legacy only accept legacy-NaN binaries, if supported by the FPU 2008 only accept 2008-NaN binaries, if supported by the FPU relaxed accept any binaries regardless of whether supported by the FPU The FPU emulator is always able to support both NaN encodings, so if no FPU hardware is present or it has been disabled with 'nofpu', then the settings of 'legacy' and '2008' strap the emulator accordingly, 'relaxed' straps the emulator for both legacy-NaN and 2008-NaN, whereas 'strict' enables legacy-NaN only on legacy processors and both NaN encodings on MIPS32 or MIPS64 CPUs.
The setting for ABS.
Load a policy which meets the needs of the Trusted Computing Base.
If left unspecified, ahash usage is disabled.
This option can be used to achieve the best performance for a particular HW.
This option can be used to achieve best performance for particular HW.
Useful for working out where the kernel is dying during startup.
Useful for debugging built-in modules and initcalls.
Can override in debugfs after boot.
Default 1 -- additional integrity auditing messages.
If a gfx device has a dedicated DMAR unit, the DMAR unit is bypassed by not enabling DMAR with this option.
In this case, gfx device will use physical address for DMA.
The default is to look for translation below 32-bit and if not available then look in the higher range.
With this option, super page will not be supported.
With this option set, extended tables will https://pink-stuf.com/2020/best-poker-game-for-ipad-2020.html be used even on hardware which claims to support them.
By default, tboot will force Intel IOMMU on, which could harm performance of some high-throughput devices like 40GBit network cards, even if identity mapping is enabled.
Note that using this option lowers the security provided by tboot because it makes the system vulnerable no deposit bonus 2020 DMA attacks.
This mode cannot be used along with the hardware-managed P-states HWP feature.
If the Fixed ACPI Description Table, specifies preferred power management profile as "Enterprise Server" or "Performance Server", then this feature is turned on by default.
Format: { "0" "1" } 0 - Use IOMMU translation for DMA.
Intended to get systems with badly broken firmware running.
Also check all handlers each timer interrupt.
Intended to get systems with badly broken firmware running.
The argument is a cpu list, as described above.
This option can be used to specify one or more CPUs to isolate from the general SMP balancing and scheduling algorithms.
You can move a process onto or off an "isolated" CPU via the CPU affinity syscalls or cpuset.
This option is the preferred way to isolate CPUs.
The alternative -- manually setting the CPU mask of all tasks in the system -- can cause problems and suboptimal load balancer performance.
For example, to map IOAPIC-ID decimal 10 to PCI device 00:14.
For example, to map HPET-ID decimal 0 to PCI device 00:14.
For example, to map UART-HID:UID AMD0020:0 to PCI device 00:14.
Without this parameter KASAN will print report only for the first invalid access.
The requested amount is spread evenly throughout all nodes in the system.
The remaining memory in each node is used for Movable pages.
In the event, a node is too small to have both kernelcore and Movable pages, kernelcore pages will take priority and other nodes will have a larger number of Movable pages.
The Movable zone is used for the allocation of pages that may be reclaimed or moved by the page migration subsystem.
This means that HugeTLB pages may not be allocated from this zone.
Note that allocations like PTEs-from-HighMem still use the HighMem zone if it exists, and the Normal zone if it does not.
In case "mirror" option is specified, mirrored reliable memory is used for non-movable allocations and remaining memory is used for Movable pages.
The poll interval is optional and is the number seconds in between each poll cycle to the debug port in case you need the functionality for interrupting the kernel with gdb or control-c on the dbgp connection.
When not using this parameter you use sysrq-g to break into the kernel debugger.
Requires a tty driver that supports console polling, or a supported polling keyboard driver non-usb.
Configure the RouterBoard 532 series tcp_slot_table_entries oracle Ethernet adapter MAC address.
Default casino free demo live 0 don't ignore, but inject GP kvm.
Default is 0 off kvm-amd.
Default is 1 enabled kvm-amd.
Default is 1 enabled if in 64-bit or 32-bit PAE mode.
Default is 1 enabled kvm-intel.
Default is 1 enabled kvm-intel.
Default is 0 disabled kvm-intel.
Default is 1 enabled kvm-intel.
Default back to the programmable timer unit in the LAPIC.
PORT and DEVICE are decimal numbers matching port, link or device.
Basically, it matches the ATA ID string printed on console by libata.
If the whole ID part is omitted, the last PORT and DEVICE values are used.
If ID hasn't been specified yet, the configuration applies to all ports, links and devices.
If only DEVICE is omitted, the parameter applies to the port and all links and devices behind it.
DEVICE number of 0 either selects the first device or the first fan-out link behind PMP device.
It does not select the host link.
DEVICE number of 15 selects the host link and device attached to it.
The VAL specifies the configuration to force.
As long as there's no ambiguity shortcut notation is allowed.
For example, both 1.
The following configurations can be forced.
Any ID with matching PORT is used.
If there are multiple matching configurations changing the same attribute, the last one is used.
Defaults to being automatically set based on the number of online CPUs.
Shuffling tasks allows some CPUs to go into dyntick-idle mode during the locktorture test.
This is useful for hands-off automated testing.
This tests the locking primitive's ability to tcp_slot_table_entries oracle abruptly to and from idle.
It opinion, poker full tilt free magnificent also be changed with klogd or other programs.
This may be used to provide more screen space for kernel log messages and is useful when debugging kernel boot problems.
read more port specification may be 'none' to skip that lp device, or a parport name such as 'parport0'.
To determine the correct value for your kernel, boot with normal autodetection and see what value is printed.
Note that on SMP systems the preset will be applied to all CPUs, which is likely to cause problems if your CPUs need significantly divergent settings.
Although unlikely, in the extreme case this might damage your hardware.
So maxcpus only takes effect during system bootup.
Region of memory to be used is from ss to ss+nn.
Region of memory to be marked is from ss to ss+nn.
Region of memory to be reserved is from ss to ss+nn.
Region of memory to be used, from ss to ss+nn.
The memory region may be marked as e820 type 12 0xc and is NVDIMM or ADR memory.
Setting this option will scan the memory looking for corruption.
Enabling this will both detect corruption and prevent the kernel from using the memory being corrupted.
Use this parameter to scan for corruption in more or less memory.
Use this parameter to check at some other rate.
Each pass selects another test pattern from a given set of patterns.
Memtest fills the memory with this pattern, validates memory contents and reserves bad memory regions that are detected.
The TFT backlight pin will be linked to the kernel VESA blanking code and a GPIO LED.
This parameter is not necessary when using the VGA shield.
The touchscreen support is not enabled in the mainstream kernel as of 2.
A value of 0 disables mminit logging and a level of 4 will log everything.
Useful for debugging problem modules.
If both kernelcore and movablecore is specified, then kernelcore will be at least the specified value but may be more.
If movablecore on its own is specified, the administrator must be careful that the amount of memory usable for all allocations is not too small.
The remaining blocks are configured as MLC blocks.
Once locked, the boundary cannot be changed.
It is largest continuous chunk that could hold holes aka.
It is granularity of mtrr block.
Large value could prevent small alignment from using up MTRRs.
It is spare mtrr entries number.
Set to 2 or more if your graphical card needs more.
This usage is only documented in each driver source file if at all.
If zero, the NFS client will fake up a 32-bit inode number for the readdir and stat syscalls instead of returning the full 64-bit number.
The default is to return 64-bit inode numbers.
This determines the maximum number of callbacks the client will process in parallel for a particular server.
This limits the number of simultaneous RPC requests that the client can send to the NFSv4.
Servers that do not support this mode of operation will be autodetected by the client, and it will fall back to using the idmapper.
To turn off this behaviour, set the value to '0'.
This is typically a UUID that is generated at system install time.
If zero, no implementation identification information will be sent.
The default is to send the implementation identification information.
Please note that doing this risks data corruption, since there are no guarantees that the file will remain unchanged after the locks are lost.
If you want to enable the kernel legacy behaviour of attempting to recover these locks, then set this parameter to '1'.
The default parameter value of '0' causes the kernel not to attempt recovery of lost locks.
Setting this to value to 0 causes the kernel to use whatever value is the default set by the layout driver.
A non-zero value sets the minimum interval in seconds between layoutstats transmissions.
To disable both hard and soft lockup detectors, please see 'nowatchdog'.
By default netpoll waits 4 seconds.
This may not work reliably with all consoles, but is known to work with serial and VGA consoles.
Saves per-node memory, but continue reading impact performance.
The kernel will only save legacy floating-point registers on task switch.
The kernel will fallback to enabling legacy floating-point and sse state.
The kernel will fall back to use xsave to save the states.
By using this parameter, performance of saving the states is degraded because xsave doesn't support modified optimization while xsaveopt supports it on xsaveopt enabled systems.
The kernel will fall back to use xsaveopt and xrstor to save and restore the states in standard form of xsave area.
By using this parameter, xsave area per process might occupy more memory on xsaves enabled systems.
This is also useful when using JTAG debugger.
The only way then for a file to be executed with privilege is tcp_slot_table_entries oracle be setuid root or executed by root.
On the positive side, it reduces interrupt wake-up latency, which may improve performance in certain environments such as networked servers or real-time systems.
The boot CPU will be forced outside the range to maintain the timekeeping.
RDRAND and RDSEED are still available to user space applications.
This is required for the Braillex ib80-piezo Braille reader made by F.
Some features depend on CPU0.
Known dependencies are: 1.
PIC interrupts also depend on CPU0.
CPU0 can't be removed if a PIC interrupt is detected.
It could be larger than the number of already plugged CPU during bootup, later in runtime you can physically add extra cpu until it reaches n.
So during boot up some boot time memory for per-cpu variables need be pre-allocated for later physical cpu hot plugging.
We have interrupts disabled while waiting for the ACK, so tcp_slot_table_entries oracle this is set too high interrupts may be lost!
Default is to just kill the process, but there is a small probability of deadlocking the machine.
This will also cause panics on machine check exceptions.
Storage of the information about who allocated each page is disabled in default.
With this switch, we can turn it on.
Useful to cause kdump on a WARN.
This only for the users who doubt kdump always succeeds in any situation.
Note that this also increases risks of kdump failure, because some panic notifiers can make the crashed kernel more unstable.
You can specify the base address, IRQ, and DMA settings; IRQ and DMA should be numbers, or 'auto' for using detected settings on that particular portor 'nofifo' to avoid using a FIFO even if it is detected.
Parallel ports are assigned in the order they are specified on the command line, starting with parport0.
This is necessary on Pegasos computer where firmware has no options for setting up parallel port mode and sets it to spp.
Currently this function knows 686a and 8231 chips.
This is to be used if your oopses keep scrolling off the screen.
Use this if your machine has a non-standard PCI host bridge.
Use this if you experience crashes upon bootup and you suspect they are caused by the BIOS.
The config space is then accessed through ports 0xC000-0xCFFF.
See for more info on the configuration access mechanisms.
Safety option to keep boot IRQs enabled.
This should never be necessary.
This fixes a source of spurious IRQs when the system masks IRQs.
The opposite of ioapicreroute.
These calls are known to be buggy on several machines and they hang the machine when used, but on other computers it's the only way to get the interrupt routing table.
Try this option if the kernel is unable to allocate IRQs or discover secondary PCI buses on your motherboard.
Use with caution as certain devices share address decoders between ROMs and other resources.
You can make the kernel exclude IRQs of your ISA check this out this way.
Can be useful if the kernel is unable to find your secondary buses and you want to tell it explicitly which ones they are.
This is needed on some systems with broken BIOSes, notably some HP Pavilion N5400 and Omnibook XE3 notebooks.
This will have no effect if ACPI IRQ routing is enabled.
On BIOSes from 2008 or later, this is enabled by default.
If you need to use this, please report a bug.
If you need to use this, please report a bug.
This might help on some broken boards which machine check when some devices' config space is read.
But various workarounds are disabled and some IOMMU drivers will not work.
Also set MRRS Max Read Request Size to the largest supported value no larger than the MPS that the device or bus can support for best performance.
This configuration allows peer-to-peer DMA between any pair of devices, possibly at the cost of reduced performance.
This also guarantees that hot-added devices will work.
The default value is 256 bytes.
The default value is 64 megabytes.
PCI-PCI bridge can be specified, if resource windows need to be expanded.
To specify the alignment for several instances of a device, the PCI vendor, device, subvendor, and subdevice may be specified, e.
This is the the default.
Default size is 256 bytes.
Default size is 2 megabytes.
Otherwise we only look for one device below a PCIe downstream port.
WARNING: Forcing ASPM on may cause system lockups.
Use them only if that is allowed by the BIOS.
This is useful for debug and development, but should not be needed on a platform with proper driver support.
Currently supported values are "embed" and "page".
Archs may support subset or none of the selections.
This parameter is primarily for debugging and performance comparison.
Override pmtimer IOPort with a hex value.
We always show current resource usage; turning this on also shows possible settings and some assignment information.
Ranges are in pairs memory base and size.
On Idle the CPU just reduces execution priority.
check this out is some performance impact when enabling this.
If you hit the warning due to signal overflow, you might want to try "ulimit -i unlimited".
Param: "sleep" - profile D-state sleeping millisecs.
Overwrites compiled-in default number.
This reduces OS jitter on the offloaded CPUs, which can be useful for HPC and real-time workloads.
It can also improve energy efficiency for asymmetric multiprocessors.
This improves the real-time response for the offloaded CPUs by relieving them of the need to wake up the corresponding kthread, but degrades energy efficiency by requiring that the kthreads periodically wake up to do the polling.
This is used for diagnostic purposes, to verify correct tree setup.
This is used by rcutorture, and might possibly be useful for architectures having high cache-to-cache transfer latencies.
Useful for very large systems, which will choose the value 64, and for NUMA tcp_slot_table_entries oracle with large remote-access latencies, which will choose a value aligned with the appropriate hardware boundaries.
Units are jiffies, minimum value is zero, and maximum value is HZ.
Units are jiffies, minimum value is one, and maximum value is HZ.
Larger numbers reduces the wakeup overhead on the per-CPU grace-period kthreads, but increases that same overhead on each group's leader.
Lazy RCU callbacks are those which RCU can prove do nothing more than free memory.
The purpose of this parameter is to delay the start of the test until boot completes in order to avoid interference.
The value -1 selects N, where N is the number of CPUs.
A value "n" less than -1 selects N-n+1, where N is again the number of CPUs.
For example, -2 selects N the number of CPUs-3 selects N+1, and so continue reading />A value of "n" less than or equal to -N selects a single reader.
The values operate the same as for rcuperf.
N, where N is the number of CPUs rcuperf.
This is useful for hands-off automated testing.
Set this to zero to disable callback-flood testing.
If all of rcutorture.
These just stress RCU, they don't participate in the actual test, hence the "fake".
The value -1 selects N-1, where N is the number of CPUs.
A value "n" less than -1 selects N-n-2, where N is again the number of CPUs.
For example, -2 selects N the number of CPUs-3 selects N+1, and so on.
Shuffling tasks allows some CPUs to go into dyntick-idle mode during the rcutorture test.
This is useful for hands-off automated testing.
This tests RCU's ability to transition abruptly to and from idle.
See also the rcutorture.
This reduces latency, but can increase CPU utilization, degrade real-time latency, and degrade energy efficiency.
This improves real-time latency, CPU utilization, and energy efficiency, but can expose users to increased grace-period latency.
This parameter overrides rcupdate.
Disable with a value less than or equal to zero.
Useful for devices that are detected asynchronously e.
USB and MMC devices.
All wifi, bluetooth, wimax, gps, fm, etc.
When active, the signals of the debug-uart get routed to the D+ and D- pins of the usb port and the regular usb controller gets disabled.
Useful for devices that are detected asynchronously e.
USB and MMC devices.
Memory area to be used by remote processor image, managed by CMA.
Default is lazy flushing before reuse, which is faster.
Allowed values are enable and disable.
This feature incurs a small amount of overhead in the scheduler but is useful for debugging and performance tuning.
Format: { "0" "1" } 0 -- disable.
If this boot parameter is not specified, only the first security module asking for security registration will be loaded.
An invalid security module name will be treated as if no module has been chosen.
Default value is set via kernel config option.
Default value is set via kernel config option.
May be necessary if there is some reason to distinguish allocs to different slabs.
Debug options disable merging on their own.
A high setting may cause OOMs due to memory fragmentation.
Defaults to 1 for systems with more than 32MB of RAM, 0 otherwise.
learn more here high setting may cause OOMs due to memory fragmentation.
The higher the number of objects the smaller the overhead of tracking slabs and the less frequently locks need to be acquired.
This is supported for legacy.
Will be capped to the actual hardware limit.
Set to zero to disable automatic expediting.
The value is in page units and it defines how many pages prior to for stacks growing down resp.
Default value is 256 pages.
Note, this enables stack tracing and the stacktrace above is not needed.
An administrator who wishes to reserve some of these ports for other uses may adjust the range that the kernel's sunrpc client considers to be privileged using these two parameters to set the minimum and maximum port values.
The default value is 0 no limit.
Depending on how many NICs you have and where their interrupts are bound, this option will affect which CPUs will do NFS serving.
Note: this parameter cannot be changed while the NFS server is running.
Increasing these values may allow you to improve throughput, but will also increase the amount of memory reserved for use by the client.
Default value is 5.
When this option is enabled very new udev will not work anymore.
Default value is 8192 or 16384 depending on total ram pages.
This is used to specify the TCP metrics cache size.
The system is woken from this state using a wakeup-capable RTC alarm.
Disable the usage of the cleancache API to send anonymous pages to the hypervisor.
Disable the usage of the frontswap API to send swap pages to the hypervisor.
If disabled the selfballooning and selfshrinking are force disabled.
Disable the driving of swap pages to the hypervisor.
Partial swapoff that immediately transfers pages from Xen hypervisor back to the kernel based on different criteria.
The scheduler will make use of this information and e.
This will guarantee that all the other pcrs are saved.
The event-list is a comma separated list of trace events to enable.
Used to enable high-resolution timer mode on older hardware, and in virtualized environment.
Some badly-designed motherboards generate lots of bogus events, for ports that aren't wired to anything.
Set this parameter to avoid log spamming.
Note that genuine overcurrent events won't be reported either.
This is the time required before an idle device will be autosuspended.
Devices for which the delay is set to a negative value won't be autosuspended at all.
List entries are separated by commas.
This is actually a boot loader parameter; the value is passed to the kernel using a special protocol.
This can be used to increase the minimum size 128MB on x86.
It can also be used to decrease the size and leave more room for directly mapped kernel RAM.
Most statically-linked binaries and older versions of glibc use these calls.
Because these functions are at fixed addresses, they make nice targets for exploits that can control RIP.
This is a little bit faster than trapping and makes a few dynamic recompilers work better than they would in emulation mode.
It also makes exploits much easier to write.
This makes them quite hard to use for exploits but might break your system.
A;B;Cc escape sequence; see VGA-softcursor.
This is a 16-member array composed of values ranging from 0-255.
This is a 16-member array composed of values ranging from 0-255.
This is a 16-member array composed of values ranging from 0-255.
Default is 1, i.
UTF-8 mode is enabled for all newly opened terminals.
Default is -1, i.
The default value is 30 and it can be updated at runtime by writing to the corresponding sysfs file.
If NUMA affinity needs to be disabled for whatever reason, this option can be used.
Enabling this makes the per-cpu workqueues which were observed to contribute significantly to power consumption unbound, leading to measurably lower power usage at the cost of small performance overhead.
This guarantee is no longer true and while local CPU is still preferred work items may be put on foreign CPUs.
This debug option forces round-robin CPU selection to flush out usages which depend on the now broken guarantee.
When enabled, memory and cache locality will be impacted.
Two valid options are apbt timer only and lapic timer plus one apbt timer for broadcast timer.