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Mexico's long-running drug war — A skull of someone thought to be a victim of drug violence lies on the ground in Ciudad Juarez in early 2010.
The border city of Juarez has been racked by violent drug-related crime, making it one of the most dangerous cities in Mexico's war on drugs.
According to figures released on January 11 by the Mexican government, 12,903 people were mobile casino login fiz in drug-related violence in the first nine months of 2011.
Mexico's long-running drug war — Mexican Federal Police stand guard over 105 tons of marijuana seized in Tijuana, Mexico, in October 2010.
Smuggling remains a booming business.
In America, a kilo's street value is significantly higher.
Mexico's long-running drug war — The cartels arm themselves heavily.
Here, Mexican Federal Police display speel casino large cache of high-powered weapons, grenades, ammunition and 2 kilos of cocaine, all seized from the Zetas cartel in October 2010.
The money was seized from alleged members of the Guzman Loera drug cartel during a raid in the border town of Tijuana, Casino atlanta ga near harrahs />Mexico's long-running drug war — Two bodies hang from a bridge in Mexico in September 2011.
Some cartels have developed reputations for sickening brutality -- seeming to kill for pleasure, just because they can.
Mexico's long-running drug war — The Zetas cartel was blamed for setting fire to the Casino Royale in Monterrey, Mexico, in August 2011.
That attack killed 52 people.
Mexico's long-running drug war — American-born Como operan los casinos en mexico Valdez Villareal, or 'La Barbie,' of the Beltran Leyva drug cartel, was arrested in August 2010 in Mexico, and smiled as he was paraded in front of the press.
Mexico's long-running drug war — Joaquin Guzman, or "El Chapo" Shortyis the boss of the Sinaloa cartel.
In this last-known photo taken outside a Juarez prison in 1993, the 5 foot 6 inch son of a poor family wears a schoolboy haircut and a disheveled puff-coat.
He has eluded capture for more than a decade.
Mexico's long-running drug war — After his election in 2006, President Felipe Calderon declared war on the cartels, sending the military out across the country and fired hundreds of corrupt police officers.
Calderon's administration trumpets its successes, but the president is a lame duck.
Term limits prohibit him from running again in 2012.
CNN Here's a look at the Mexican Drug War.
The Mexican government has been fighting a war with drug traffickers since December 2006.
At the same time, drug cartels have fought each other for control of territory.
Facts: who was president from 2012 to 2018, continued the fight started by President Felipe Calderon against the cartels and drug-related violence.
A huge victory for his administration was the 2014 arrest ofthe boss of one of Mexico's most powerful drug trafficking operations, the Sinaloa cartel.
According to a 2018 Congressional Research Service"many sources indicate" that about 150,000 intentional homicides since 2006 were organized crime-related.
Major Cartels: Beltran Leyva - Founded by the four Beltran Leyva brothers, Arturo, Carlos, Alfredo and Hector.
Formerly aligned with the Sinaloa cartel.
All of the brothers have been killed or arrested, but "remnants" of the group continues to operate in parts of Mexico, according to the US Drug Enforcement Agency's The subgroups rely on alliances with the Jalisco New Generation Cartel, the Juarez Cartel and Los Zetas.
Gulf Cartel - Based in Matamoros, Tamaulipas, it started in 1920.
It split with its enforcers, Los Zetas, by 2010, and the fallout between the two groups has been called the "most violent in the history of organized crime in Mexico," according to a 2018 Congressional Research Service report.
The cartel is now splintered into small, competing gangs.
Jalisco New Generation - Split from the Sinaloa Cartel in 2010, it is "one of the most powerful and fastest growing in Mexico and the United States," according to the DEA assessment.
The Mexican government has warned it's one of the most dangerous cartels in the country, especially after it shot down a military helicopter in May 2015.
Rubén Oseguera Cervantes, known as "El Mencho," is believed to be the group's leader.
Juarez Cartel - Formerly aligned with the Sinaloa Cartel, then began fighting it for control of Ciudad Juarez and the state of Chihuahua.
La Familia Michoacana - Based in the Michoacan state.
Possibly defunct as of 2011.
It announced it would disband in 2010, but some cells are still active in Guerrero and Mexico states, according to the Congressional Research Service report.
Los Zetas Cartel - Comprised of former elite members of the Mexican military.
Initially they worked as hit men for the Gulf Cartel, before becoming independent.
The group has a reputation for being particularly savage and is known for massacres, killing civilians, leaving body parts in public places and posting killings on the internet.
The group's main asset is not drugs, but organized violence, including theft, extortion, human smuggling and kidnapping, according to the Congressional Research Report.
Sinaloa Cartel - Considered to be the dominant drug trafficking please click for source in Mexico.
It was founded and led bywho was arrested in 2014, escaped in July 2015, trick merkur casino rearrested in January 2016.
The cartel may now be operating "with a more horizontal leadership structure than previously thought," according the US DEA report.
Most of the Arellano Felix brothers have been apprehended or visit web page />Timeline: December 11, 2006 - Newly elected Mexican President Felipe Calderon deploys more than 6,500 Mexican soldiers to the state of Michoacán to battle drug traffickers.
Mexican government, April 2010 January 2007 - Captured casino in california lord Osiel Cardena Guillen, alleged former head of the Gulf cartel, is extradited to the United States.
February 2007 - More than 20,000 Mexican soldiers and federal police are spread out across Mexico as part of President Calderon's drug war.
Mexican government, April 2010 January 2008 - Alfredo Beltran Leyva, of the Beltran Leyva Cartel, is arrested by Mexican police in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico.
May 1, 2008 - Roberto Velasco Bravo, Mexico's director of investigation for organized crime, is killed in Mexico City.
May 8, 2008 - Edgar Eusebio Millan Gomez, Mexico's federal police chief, and two bodyguards are killed in Mexico City.
May 9, 2008 - The commander of Mexico City's investigative police force, Esteban Roble Espinosa, is killed outside his home.
September 15, 2008 - During an independence day celebration in Morelia's town square, grenades are thrown into the crowd, killing eight people.
The incident has been described as the first terrorist-style attack on innocent bystanders in Mexico's drug war.
November 1, 2008 - The acting head of Mexico's Federal Police, Victor Gerardo Garay, resigns under suspicion of corruption.
November 3, 2009 - The reported head of the Los Zetas drug cartel, Braulio Arellano Dominguez, is killed in a gun battle with Mexican forces in Soledad de Doblado.
December 16, 2009 - Arturo Beltran Leyva, head of the Beltran Leyva cartel, is killed in a shootout with Mexican forces in Cuernavaca.
Mexican government, April 2010 January 2010 - Carlos Beltran Leyva is arrested by Mexican authorities in Sinaloa.
He is the third Beltran Leyva cartel brother to be captured or killed in two years.
February 25, 2010 - Osiel Cardenas Guillen, head of the Gulf Cartel until his capture in 2003, is sentenced to 25 years in prison in Texas.
May 26, 2010 - Pedro Roberto Velazquez Amador, allegedly the leader of the Beltran Leyva cartel in San Pedro, is killed in a shootout with federal forces in northern Mexico.
June 11, 2010 - Edgar Valdez Villarreal, "La Barbie," an American citizen, is charged with trafficking thousands of kilograms of cocaine into the United States between 2004 and 2006.
July 29, 2010 - Ignacio "Nacho" Coronel Villarreal, one of the leaders of the Sinaloa drug cartel, is killed in a military raid in Guadalajara's suburbs.
August 25, 2010 - The bodies of 72 migrants from South and Here America are discovered on a ranch in Tamaulipas state.
ceo of mgm grand casino detroit is believed the 58 men and 14 women were kidnapped by the Los Zetas cartel and killed for refusing to traffic drugs.
September 10, 2010 - President Calderon tells CNN en Español, "We live next to the world's largest drug consumer, and all the world wants to sell them drugs through our door and our window.
And we como operan los casinos en mexico next to the world's largest arms seller, which is supplying the criminals.
November 5, 2010 - Antonio Ezequiel Cardenas Guillen, aka Tony Tormenta, allegedly the head of the Gulf cartel, is killed in a shootout with Mexican forces in Matamoros.
January 2011 - The Mexican government says that 34,612 citizens have been killed during the four-year drug war.
January 17, 2011 - Flavio Mendez Santiago, one of the original founders of Los Zetas, is captured near Oaxaca.
February 15, 2011 - US Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agents Jaime Zapata and Victor Avila Jr.
Zapata dies and Avila survives a gunshot wound to his leg.
The Los Zetas drug cartel is suspected.
February 23, 2011 - Mexican soldiers arrest six members of the Los Zetas drug cartel, including Julian Zapata Espinoza, who is allegedly responsible for the death of US ICE Agent Zapata.
March 5, 2011 - Alleged Los Zetas drug cartel member Mario Jimenez Perez is arrested in connection with Zapata's murder.
April 2011 - Several mass graves holding 177 bodies are discovered in Tamaulipas, the same area where the bodies of 72 migrants were discovered in como operan los casinos en mexico />April 16, 2011 - Mexican authorities announce the arrest of Martin Omar Estrada Luna -- nicknamed "El Kilo," a presumed leader of the Los Zetas drug cartel.
Estrada Luna has been identified by authorities as one of three prime suspects behind the mass graves discovered earlier in April.
April 29, 2011 - Former drug cartel leader Benjamin Arellano Felix is extradited to the United States.
May 8, 2011 - Twelve suspected members of the Los Zetas drug cartel and a member of Mexico's navy are killed in a shootout on a Falcon Lake island.
Authorities say the suspected drug traffickers were storing marijuana on the island.
May 29, 2011 - Ten police officers, including a police chief, are arrested on charges of protecting the Los Zetas drug cartel.
June 2011 - A shows that about 70% of firearms seized in Mexico and submitted to the ATF for tracing came from the United States.
The report covers 29,284 firearms submitted in 2009 and 2010.
June 21, 2011 - Mexican federal police capture Jose de Jesus Mendez Vargas, also known as "The Monkey," the alleged head of La Familia Michoacana cartel in Augascalientes.
July 3, 2011 - Mexican authorities arrest Jesus Enrique Rejon Aguilar, known as "El Mamito," a reported founding member of the Los Zetas Cartel and allegedly connected to ICE Agent Jaime Zapata's death.
July 11, 2011 - The US government announces a plan to require gun dealers in California, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas to report the sales of semiautomatic rifles under certain conditions in an effort to stem the flow of guns to Mexican drug cartels.
July 27, 2011 - Edgar Jimenez Lugo, known as "El Ponchis" or "The Cloak," a 14-year-old American citizen with suspected drug cartel ties, is found guilty of beheading at least four people.
He is sentenced to three years, the maximum for a juvenile, in a Mexican correctional facility.
July 30, 2011 - Mexican authorities announce they have Jose Antonio Acosta Hernandez, or "El Diego," in custody.
He is the purported leader of La Linea, the suspected armed branch of the Juarez drug cartel, and considered responsible for the death of US Consulate employee Lesley Enriquez and her husband Arthur Redelfs.
August 1, 2011 - Mexican federal police arrest Moises Montero Alvarez, known as "The Korean," a suspected leader of the Independent Cartel of Acapulco CIDA and allegedly connected with the murders of 20 Mexican tourists in 2010.
August 25, 2011 - At least 52 people are killed in an attack on the Casino Royale in Monterrey, Mexico.
Witnesses say up to six people entered the Casino Royale and demanded money from the manager.
When the manager refused to pay, the building was set on fire.
August 30, 2011 - Mexican officials allege that five suspects arrested in connection with the Mexico casino fire are members of the Los Zetas drug cartel.
The suspects are identified as Luis Carlos Carrazco Espinosa; Javier Alonso Martinez Morales, alias "el Javo;" Jonathan Jahir Reyna Gutierrez; Juan Angel Leal Flores; and Julio Tadeo Berrones, alias "El Julio Rayas.
September 13, 2011 - A murdered man and woman are found hanging from a bridge in Nuevo Laredo.
Near their mutilated bodies is a sign saying they were killed for denouncing drug cartel activities on a social media site.
The sign also threatens to kill others who post "funny things on the internet.
January 4, 2012 - Benjamin Arellano Felix, a former leader of Mexico's Tijuana drug cartel, pleads guilty to charges of racketeering and conspiracy visit web page launder money.
January 11, 2012 - The office of Mexico's Attorney General releases a statement saying that nearly 13,000 people were killed in drug violence between January and September 2011.
August 31, 2012 - Eduardo Arellano Felix, an alleged senior member of a Tijuana-based drug cartel, is extradited from Mexico to the United States.
Arellano Felix was arrested on October 25, 2008, after a gun battle with Mexican forces.
He is later sentenced to 15 years in US prison.
September 3, 2012 - In his final state of the nation address, President Calderon defends his government's approach to combating crime and drugs and criticizes the United States for providing criminals with almost "unlimited access" to weapons.
September 4, 2012 - Mexican authorities announce the capture of Mario Cardenas Guillen, also known as "M1" and "The Fat One," a suspected leader of the Gulf cartel.
September 27, 2012 - Mexican marines capture and arrest a man claiming to be Ivan Velazquez Caballero, alias "El Taliban.
October 9, 2012 - Mexican authorities confirm that Mexican marines killed Heriberto Lazcano Lazcano, leader of the Zetas cartel, in a shootout on October 7.
Lazcano's body was stolen from a funeral home on October 8, but authorities had already taken fingerprints and photographs to confirm his identity.
July 15, 2013 - Los Zetas cartel leader Miguel Angel Trevino Morales, known as Z-40, is detained by Mexican authorities in an operation in the Mexican border state of Tamaulipas, state media reports.
August 20, 2013 - Mario Ramirez-Trevino, ranking member of the Gulf cartel and also known as "X-20," is captured in Reynosa, a city in Tamaulipas state.
February 22, 2014 - A US official tells CNN that Como operan los casinos en mexico "El Chapo" Guzman, the boss of one of Mexico's most powerful drug trafficking operations, has been arrested in Mexico.
March 9, 2014 - during an arrest attempt, according to Mexican authorities.
He was one of the leaders and main founders of La Familia Michoacana cartel.
This is the second time Mexican officials have claimed Moreno is dead.
They also announced his death in 2010.
July 11, 2015 - Guzman previously escaped from prison in 2001 in a laundry cart and eluded authorities for more than a dozen years until his capture in 2014.
January 29, 2016 - A by US and Mexican law enforcement officials results in the arrest of 24 Sinaloa cartel members.
The sting also netted weapons and hundreds of pounds of narcotics.
February 23, 2016 - to participating in an international narcotic trafficking conspiracy before US District Judge Richard Leon.
In 2017, March 14, 2017 - Veracruz State Attorney General Jorge Winckler confirms that a.
The remains appear to be victims of organized crime violence killed in recent years.
December 19, 2017 - The US Department of Justice announces the extradition from Mexico to the US of two alleged former Mexican drug cartel leaders -- Mario Ramirez-Trevino, alleged former leader of the Mexican Https://pink-stuf.com/casino/niagara-falls-bus-terminal-to-fallsview-casino.html Como operan los casinos en mexico, and an associate of Guzman, Victor Manuel Felix-Felix, alleged leader of a Mexican money laundering and cocaine trafficking organization.
Ramirez-Trevino was charged and arrested in 2013 and has been in Mexican custody since.
Felix-Felix was indicted in March 2011.
February 9, 2018 - Mexican authorities capture the alleged head of the Zetas drug cartel, Jose Maria Guizar Valencia.
February 12, 2019 - Guzmán is convicted of 10 counts in a New York federal court.
He faces a mandatory life sentence without the possibility of parole for leading a continuing criminal enterprise, and a sentence of up to life imprisonment on drug counts.
His attorneys say they plan to file an appeal on a number of issues.
August 8, 2019 - Mexican police find 19 bodies in Mexico City.
Nine of the bodies are found hanging from an overpass alongside a drug cartel banner threatening rival cartels.

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These activities allow the groups to increase revenues, hedge the risks of other criminal activities, and move into new markets.
From 2007 to 2012, the overall number of crimes increased by 150 percent, but most dramatically extortion increased by 1,250 percent.
While often overlooked, extortion is even more harmful to Mexican communities than drug smuggling.
Extortion also attacks the entrepreneurial class, who should be the drivers of economic growth, sometimes forcing business owners to remain prisoners in their own homes or flee the area entirely.
Dramatic Increase in Extortions Extortion has been prevalent for many years in Mexico, but between 2009 and 2010, its prevalence increased exponentially.
Figure 1: Dramatic Increase in Extortions in Mexico.
In late 2009, the Mexican government targeted several members of the Beltran Leyva cartel, which operated in central Mexico.
In late 2010, the Mexican government killed the leader of the Familia Michoacana organization, which operated in the state of Michoacán in west-central Mexico.
By the fall of 2011, the Mexican government had killed or captured 21 of the 37 most wanted criminal organization leaders.
The middle management—the hit men and regional chiefs—founded local mafias dedicated to the extortion of illegal markets such as drugs or pirated goodsbut later expanded into legal markets.
Many retired criminals re-activated and re-formed because of the growing demand for their work.
These criminal organizations established their reputation for violence with extremely bloody acts.
According to security analyst Eduardo Guerrero Gutierrez, they also began to hang banners called narcomantas in public places so as to announce their arrival and intimidate the local populations into paying their extortion demands.
Each point on the graph is divided by the highest point, or 100.
When there is not enough data, 0 is shown.
Google searches for the term are a proxy for narcomantas presence over time; meaning that there will likely be more Google searches when there are more narcomantas.
The graph shows that there was almost no search activity for narcomantas prior to 2008, despite the fact that President Calderón launched the war against the cartels in 2007.
Instead, we see a spike in February 2010 and high levels of searches osage casino tulsa age requirement 2011 and 2012, corresponding to the extortion uptick over the same time period.
Contrary to popular perception, drug-trafficking organizations do not typically seek violence for its own sake.
Public and conspicuous violent displays bring unnecessary law enforcement attention to a particular region or group.
Yet there is a strategic logic to committing conspicuous and gratuitous acts violence in order to extort the local population.
Public displays of violence generate fear throughout a community, which reduces the marginal cost of extorting another business or individual and increasing the profits of criminal organizations.
The Zetas attacked the casino with automatic weapons and lit fire to it, killing 52 people.
Cartels Responsible for the Rise in Extortions Harvard researcher Viridiana Rios has studied and classified the competitive and expansionary behavior of various cartels.
Competitive is defined as operating in an area where other cartels are already operating, and expansionary is defined as colonizing new municipalities where no cartel had previously operated.
Expansionary cartels use extortion more than sedentary cartels because it is an effective strategy for establishing their enterprise in a given territory.
Similar to the Zetas, these groups also display relatively high levels of competition and expansion during this period.
How Criminal Organizations Expand National or regional cartels are not the only criminal actors in Mexico and certainly not the only ones extorting individuals and businesses.
Many mid-level and local criminal organizations run como operan los casinos en mexico operations.
With extortion, cartels need employees who have local knowledge of the people and businesses that are vulnerable and that could be extorted profitably.
To quickly attract individuals with this expertise, groups like the Zetas have used a franchise model of expansion typical of fast-food chains.
When the Zetas arrive in a city, they use connections within the underworld and corrupt police officers to discover whom the local criminals are and the activities in which they are involved.
For instance, there may be groups who specialize in robberies, extortion, drug dealing, and kidnapping.
The Zetas meet with these smaller organizations that know the local market and arrange a deal where they will offer them the use of the Zeta name, help organize their activities with each other, and provide them access to weapons.
In exchange, these local groups kick up profits from the operations to the higher echelon of Zetas.
If one of these groups refuses to integrate into the Zetasthey start killing lower ranking members—though avoiding the upper echelon that has the human capital they need—to pressure the leaders to cooperate.
Through this strategy, the Zetas have built their brand into one that is synonymous with violence and one that they protect ferociously, even killing other criminals who falsely use their name.
It is likely that the other expansionary groups like the Gulf cartel, Familia Michoacana, and the Knights Templar also use similar tactics to expand their territory and extortion operations.
How Extortionists Operate There are three main types of extortion operations: virtual, direct, and indirect.
Unfortunately, reports and surveys from the government and NGOs do not classify extortion into the different subtypes, making it difficult to diagnose and analyze the problem.
Virtual extortion Telephonic extortion, sometimes referred to as virtual kidnapping, is the most common form in Mexico.
In 2008, an ICESI survey estimated that 82 percent of all extortions were conducted via telephone.
Unfortunately, no surveys since have charted this percentage, but interviews with NGOs and security analysts, as well as media reports, suggest that telephonic extortion is still the overwhelmingly most common form of extortion.
Extortionists use many different methods to trick their victims see more thinking that they or one of their family members are in imminent danger if they do not pay the demands.
In other cases, extortionists call a victim and claim they have kidnapped a member of their family.
With this information, the extortionists make the victim believe that their family member is in imminent danger and demand an immediate payment.
Many times the calls are simply random; extortionists dial numbers until they reach someone who they can trick into paying.
Other times they will conduct information reconnaissance to extract information from victims.
They call and pretend to be an employee at a bank where the victim has an please click for source, a worker performing a survey, a long-lost relative, or they may even claim that the victim has won a raffle and needs to provide personal information in order to receive the prize.
Extortionists also use publicly available information from Google searches or social media sites.
If victims cannot be simply tricked into handing over money, perpetrators threaten to kidnap or murder the victim or his family.
NGOs agree that the vast majority of these telephonic extortions originate from prisons.
One way criminals collect the money is by having victims purchase pre-paid phone cards and read the codes to the extortionists.
Direct Extortion Direct extortion refers to confronting individuals or businesses to force them to make continuous extortion payments.
These operations can range from the simple to the complex.
In some areas where there is a high degree of fear and a lack of law enforcement, criminals simply enter a business and threaten the owner with violence if he or she does not pay a regular sum.
In Cancun, some extortionists have operatives who sit outside the restaurant and count how many people come in for breakfast, lunch, and dinner.
These individuals then present the owners with estimates of how much money they have earned and demand a certain amount of the profits.
In Michoacán, the Knights Templar is involved in almost any industry where it can make a profit.
For exports, the Knights Templar have members who speak Chinese and can negotiate extortion payments with the Chinese ships that come to purchase the metals and bring precursor chemicals for methamphetamine production and pirated goods.
The Knights Templar have even moved into agriculture.
Indirect Extortion Indirect extortion refers to the practice of forcing businesses to purchase items directly from criminal organizations.
Many groups, especially the Knights Templar and the Zetas, steal oil and gasoline from Pemex and resell it to truckers and gas stations in states like Tamaulipas, Nuevo Leon, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosí, Querétaro, Veracruz, and Michoacán.
They also steal large pipes from Pemex and resell them to distributors at a 30 percent discount, knowing that Pemex only sells them at a 5 percent discount.
If the owners refuse to buy from the criminal organizations, the groups force them to sell their gas stations, even bringing a public notary to legalize the transaction.
If these owners report the crime to the police or refuse to sell their businesses, the cartels will kill the owner, his or her family, or the workers.
Government officials sometimes act as a part of, or in collaboration with, criminal organizations in order to extort businesses.
Unfortunately, this survey data on the success rate and amounts demanded was not replicated in previous nor subsequent surveys, making this the only publicly available quantitative data on the subject.
In order to estimate the revenues from extortion for additional years, I took the national effective payment rate from attempted como operan los casinos en mexico of 23.
This is a simplistic assumption, but given the paucity of data, it will at least serve as a ballpark figure.
No explanation is given for the discrepancy between the two surveys.
The ICESI report also included indirect costs that victims suffered from extortions such as visits to a hospital or psychologist, and the productivity lost from trips to a police station to file a complaint.
This produces an even larger negative impact on the economy—one that cannot be como operan los casinos en mexico at this time due to scarce data.
How Extortionists Move Their Money In order to use money collected from extortions, criminals launder it through banks or wire services.
Investigations have produced strong evidence that some banks are complicit in extortion.
Table 2: Banks receiving extortion payments, 2008-2011 Banks used to deposit extortions Number of times Percentage of total Banamex 2,943 32.
As seen in the chart, five banks account for almost 97 percent of all extortion payment deposits in Mexico City.
For example, Banamex offers a type of account that does not require click here identification to open, so police source trace ownership.
Or if the account does require identification to open, the process of sending the contract and account details to authorities typically takes a month and in some cases can take up to six months.
Even when law enforcement can get the information from banks in a timely manner, one official estimates that only 50 percent of judges consider an extortion payment sufficient evidence to issue an arrest warrant or question the account owner as a witness.
In the other 50 percent of cases, in which judges do consider it sufficient evidence, the accounts are often opened under a false or stolen identity or the extortionists have people ready to immediately collect the payments from the banks after the deposits are made.
These individuals often claim that they have lost their account papers and desperately need the money to return home.
Sometimes, bank tellers are part of the criminal organization itself.
According to INEGI surveys, nearly one-third of people and businesses are afraid to conduct bank transactions.
Criminal organizations in Mexico have three principal economic goals in extortion: financing drug trafficking operations, replacing other revenue streams, and entering the legal market.
Criminal organizations extort because it requires low initial investments in equipment and logistics, it has low como operan los casinos en mexico costs, and it is a low-risk operation—especially in areas where state protection is weak.
Extortion as Criminal Financing Like any business, criminal enterprises have regular costs.
Not only does a cartel have to pay for its drug imports, it must maintain control over trafficking routes, logistics, and distribution networks.
It also has to pay workers and bribes, and https://pink-stuf.com/casino/casinos-in-podstrana-croatia.html weapons, ammunition, trucks, and gasoline.
The criminal enterprise must meet these payments on a regular schedule just like a legitimate business needs to meet payroll and expenses.
Imagine a cartel like Sinaloa, which has billions of dollars in revenues, yet very irregular cash flows.
Organizing the logistics for a major drug shipment may take many months and is subject to partial or complete loss of the shipment in the production country or in this web page />The shipment is a complete loss for the firm.
The regular and predictable sums of money from extortion provide a useful tool in financing these less assured operations.
With its territory and organization under threat, a criminal enterprise needs more soldiers, weapons, ammunition, intelligence, and government collaboration through bribe payments.
Think of the criminal enterprise as a bank in the recent financial crisis.
Under pre-crisis conditions, when the economy was growing steadily and loans were performing, the bank was click and did not need large capital buffers to protect it from potential losses.
When the crisis hit, and loans under-performed, the same bank became unprofitable and needed larger capital buffers to protect it from losses.
Likewise, at any given time, a criminal group may be organizing several major drug shipments.
These are like the loans that a bank has on its balance sheet; they could be very profitable for the criminal enterprise if the transaction is realized, but if a rival takes control of the logistics and distribution network, the drug shipment could become a loss.
Likewise, increased state pressure could ruin the transaction.
Under 18 casinos in tennessee conditions, the criminal group needs greater capital buffers to protect its organization from potential losses.
Revenues from extortions or kidnappings can provide this buffer.
Since 2006, cocaine use in the United States has declined by 40 percent while the price has only increased by 24 percent.
Figure 4: Cocaine use and seizures in the U.
Since then, eight U.
Washington and Colorado have gone even further by legalizing marijuana altogether, and other states are considering such a move.
Decreased drug trafficking revenues, greater competition from cartel fragmentation, and increased pressure from the Mexican state have already given criminal groups less economic incentive to expand their drug trafficking operations.
Extortion as Entry Point into Legal Market Extortionists can also use their leverage over businesses to enter the legal market.
Just as Wal-Mart is vertically integrated and can lower its average unit cost because it offers a wide array of products, so too can extortionists once they break into the legal market.
It may be economically rational to bankrupt other businesses, even those from which the criminal collects extortion payments.
He can also offer a plethora of other illegal goods and services that the legitimate business could not.
In southern Italy, one mafia family ran the market for new and used vehicles because they offered steep discounts to customers, which eventually drove competitors out of business.
Depending on the type of market that the criminal enters, the extortionist can force customers to buy from one criminal-controlled supplier.
In southern Italy, mafia families displayed this type of behavior, forcing butchers and supermarkets to purchase meat from their companies.
The control of a legal business is advantageous, since it can launder the profits of an illegal one.
The Police Response The rates of unreported crimes and convictions are staggering.
For 2012, INEGI estimates that 92 percent of crimes went unreported; that rate is even higher for extortion, at 98 percent.
Yet, even of the crimes that are reported, only seven percent end in a conviction como operan los casinos en mexico jail time 0.
On top of that, only 12 percent of convictions are for high-impact crimes such as murder, robberies, kidnapping, or extortion.
In October 2013, the Mexican army and marines announced that they would create a designated anti-extortion and anti-kidnapping unit.
The army seems to recognize that the police at the federal, state, and local levels are unable or unwilling to tackle the dramatic increase in these crimes.
Besides Ciudad Juárez, which is briefly discussed below, there is not a single police unit dedicated to fighting extortion.
According to local activists in Ciudad Juárez, from April 2010 to November 2012, federal police intervened in 1,089 cases of direct extortion, 960 in real time, preventing the payment of extortion in 88 percent of the cases.
Overall, they detained 112 people and dismantled 10 criminal organizations.
While these numbers are likely only a small percentage of the total number of extortions that occur in that city of 1.
If criminals and business owners alike believe that there is a credible chance of arrest, the perception change will deter more extortions and make businessmen more likely to stand up to intimidation.
During the 2012 presidential campaign, President Peña Nieto announced that he would create a 50,000 strong gendarmerie force to protect businesses and crop growers from green valley ranch resort spa and casino />However, in August 2014, he unveiled a force that was only 10 percent of the original number.
Self-defense groups, as they are known, have cropped up in ten states throughout the country, although most are concentrated in Michoacán and Guerrero.
In Guerrero, 46 of the 81 municipalities have self-defense groups.
In Michoacán, José Mireles Valverde, one of the must public and famous leaders of the self-defense groups in Tepalcatepec, Michoacán, says that from July 2013 until his arrest the following year, his self-defense groups took control of 28 of the 113 municipalities.
One Michoacán self-defense group claims to have as many as 5,000 members and another claims 3,000.
Only in late January 2014 did the Mexican state legally recognize these self-defense groups.
This is a tacit admission that the Mexican state does not have the will or power to fight the cartels in Michoacán, nor does it have the popular backing to disarm the self-defense groups who have become modern-day Robin Hoods in the eyes of some in the Mexican public, even while others believe them to be tools of rival cartels.
Proposals Even admitting the extent of the problem will be difficult for the Peña Nieto administration.
This was despite the fact that an INEGI survey showed that there were almost 530,000 extortions there in 2011 alone, more than in any other state.
In the long-term, rooting out corruption in law enforcement and prosecuting the criminals who commit extortion will be the only way to significantly reduce the problem.
Yet, there are steps that the government could take in the short-term to stem the tide.
Instead, members of the new gendarmerie force could oversee the signal blockers and be frequently rotated between prisons, so as to diminish the chance that they too will become corrupted.
Extortion has been described like a wave sweeping over an area; once one business falls victim, it becomes easier for criminals to target the next business and they eventually fall as well, until an entire neighborhood or municipality is being extorted.
But anti-extortion units, embedded in particularly vulnerable locations, could start to move the wave in the opposite direction to convince people, by word and deed, that they are able to protect the population.
As the rise of the self-defense groups has shown, people are willing to take up arms and push como operan los casinos en mexico against organized crime.
Instead of fighting or just acknowledging them, law enforcement could work with them as allies, where the groups provide intelligence and a first line of defense.
The Future learn more here Extortion in Mexico Widespread extortion allows criminal groups to embed themselves deeply in all economic activities in the territories they control and to become completely self-financing.
One only needs to look further south to Guatemala, El Salvador, or Honduras to see the ways embedded criminal networks can displace state control and erode economic activity.
The rise of extortion shows that Mexico does not have a drug trafficking problem; it has a rule of law problem.
The elimination of the drug trade would force criminal groups to diversify more heavily into extortion, terrorizing more of the Mexican population and causing greater economic disruption than it already has.
The war on drugs may have brought unprecedented levels of violence to Mexico, but its termination will not cease the bloodshed if criminal groups are allowed to continue to extort the masses.
Benjamin is currently a Senior Analyst at Avascent, a leading strategy and management consulting firm serving clients operating in government-driven markets.
Surveys of crime from ICESI and INEGI, 2008-2013.
Viridiana Rios and Michele Coscia.
Extorsion y otros circulos de infierno.
Interview with Eduardo Guerrero Gutierrez of Lantia Consultores on July 29, 2013.
Veronica Macias and Rodrigo Rosales.
Extorsion y otros circulos de infierno.
According to the survey, it was 58,200 MXN in 2008.
Cuadernos del ICESI 5.
Extorsion y otros circulos de infierno.
Letizia Paoli, Mafia Brotherhoods: Organized Crime, Italian Style, Oxford: Oxford University Como operan los casinos en mexico, 2003 p.
Cyrille Fijnaut and Letizia Paoli, Netherlands: Springer, 2004 p.
La Jornada del Oriente.
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